Climate Change Mitigation

Climate Change Mitigation

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Author(s):
OECD
20 Oct 2015
Pages
116
ISBN
9789264238787 (PDF) ; 9789264249783 (EPUB) ;9789264232679(print)
DOI: 
10.1787/9789264238787-en

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This report reviews trends and progress on climate change mitigation policies in 34 OECD countries and 10 partner economies (Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Russian Federation and South Africa), as well as in the European Union. Together, these countries account for over 80% of global GHG emissions. It covers three areas: 1) mitigation targets and goals, 2) carbon pricing instruments (such as energy and carbon taxation, emissions trading systems, as well as support for fossil fuels) and 3) key domestic policy settings in the energy and other sectors (including renewable energy, power generation and transport, innovation and R&D, and mitigation policies in agriculture, forestry, industry and waste sectors). The report is accompanied by an online country profiles tool containing more detailed information.

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  • Preface

    At COP 21 in Paris at the end of 2015, the global community has an opportunity to reach a new global deal on climate change that reaffirms its collective commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This agreement must send a clear signal that all countries are working towards a zero net carbon future. However, it is increasingly clear that keeping the increase in global average temperature below 2 ºC will require ambitious national targets and goals to reduce emissions together with enhanced domestic policies and implementation on the ground.

  • Foreword

    This report aims to increase transparency and improve understanding of different countries’ situations by presenting trends and progress to date on climate change mitigation policies. It provides an overview of current policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 34 OECD member countries and 10 partner economies (Brazil, People’s Republic of China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, India, Latvia, Lithuania, the Russian Federation and South Africa), as well as in the European Union. Together, these countries account for over 80% of global GHG emissions. It is a publication of the OECD Environment Directorate that was prepared as part of the Programme of Work and Budget 2015/16 of the Environment Policy Committee.

  • Reader's guide
  • Abbreviations and acronyms
  • Executive summary

    Tackling climate change is a difficult political challenge requiring a high level of trust and co-operation between countries. Global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions need to be 40-70% below 2010 levels by 2050 and near zero or negative by 2100 to hold the rise in global average temperature to below 2 ºC. If current trends continue, there is a high probability of significantly greater temperature rises, increasing the risk of severe and irreversible impacts on ecosystems, significant disruptions to agricultural systems and impacts on human health in this century and beyond.

  • The state of play of climate change mitigation policies

    This chapter provides an overview of the different national circumstances and emissions profiles that are needed to put climate mitigation policy responses into context. It also includes a summary of international mitigation targets, and goals and information on domestic climate policy settings. The policies described include national climate change plans and domestic targets, carbon and energy taxation, emissions trading systems, support for fossil fuels, innovation and research, development and demonstration (RD&D), renewable energy support policies, regulatory standards and policies to reduce emissions and enhance sinks in other sectors. This chapter serves as an extended summary of the main messages of the report.

  • Targets and goals for climate change mitigation

    This chapter presents targets and goals that countries have made in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It presents Kyoto Protocol commitments, mitigation pledges for 2020 and intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs). It provides a simple analysis of these targets and goals. It also presents climate-related national targets such as increasing the use of renewable energy, reducing energy consumption and increasing forest coverage or volume.

  • Carbon pricing

    This chapter discusses key trends in the use of carbon pricing instruments. It outlines developments in the use of energy and carbon taxation and emissions trading systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It considers the effective tax rates implied by energy and carbon taxes in different countries and in different sectors. For emissions trading systems, recent developments and different approaches to coverage and allocation of emission allowances are highlighted. This chapter also examines budgetary support and tax expenditures for the production and consumption of fossil fuels.

  • Policies in energy and other sectors

    This chapter presents policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the power generation and transport sectors. The policy areas examined include renewable energy support policies, regulatory standards and innovation, and research and development. This chapter also looks at action to mitigate climate change in other sectors such as agriculture, land use, land-use change and forestry, industry and waste.

  • Individual country analysis: Methodology and results

    The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

  • Glossary

    This glossary draws on definitions from the OECDOECD (2015), Overcoming Barriers to International Investment in Clean Energy, Green Finance and Investment, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264227064-en. and the International Energy Agency, as well as other sources such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and REN21.

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