Series on Emission Scenario Documents

2311-4606 (online)
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This is a selection of the Emission Scenario Document (ESDs) and Guidance documents related to ESDs. OECD has been working mainly on environmental exposure assessment for more than 10 years by developing a series of Emission Scenario Documents (ESDs) and other guidance documents and tools related to exposure of chemicals to the environment.

Adhesive Formulation

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03 Sep 2014
9789264221116 (PDF)

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This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD)  provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the adhesive formulation industry. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to additives and components used in adhesive formulations. These approaches are intended to provide conservative, screening-level
estimates resulting in release and exposure amounts that are likely to be higher, or at least higher than average, than amounts that might actually occur in the real world setting.

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Table of Contents

Explanatory Notes 6
-Purpose and background 6
-How to use this document 6
-Coverage and methodology 7
-How this document was developed 10
1. Industry Summary and Background16
-1.1 Introduction to Adhesives 16
-1.2 Industry Sector Description 17
-1.3 Market Profile and Adhesive Production 21
-1.4 Adhesive Application 23
2. Process Description 24
-2.1 Sealed Mixing/Transfer 24
-2.2 Unsealed Mixing/Transfer 27
-2.3 Heated Mixing/Transfer 29
-2.4 Adhesive Formulations 31
-2.5 Physical Properties of Adhesive Chemicals 34
3. Overall Approach and General Facility Estimates 40
-3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 40
-3.2 Annual Facility Adhesive Production Rate (Qadhes_site_yr) 41
-3.3 Mass Fraction of the Chemical of Interest in the Adhesive Component
 (Fchem_comp) 48
-3.4 Mass Fraction of the Component in the Adhesive Product (Fcomp_adhes) 48
-3.5 Number of Sites (Nsites) 53
-3.6 Annual Number of Batches (Nbt_site_yr) 54
-3.7 Days of Operation (TIMEworking_days)  55
-3.8 Daily Use Rate of the Chemical of Interest (Qchem_site_day) 56
-3.9 Annual Number of Adhesive Component Containers Emptied per Facility
(Ncont_empty_site_yr) 57
-3.10 Annual Number of Adhesive Product Containers Filled per Facility
 (Ncont_fill_site_yr) 58 
4. Environmental Release Assessments 60
-4.1 Control Technologies 62
-4.2 Adhesive Component Container Residue Released to Water, Incineration,
 or Landfill (Release 1) 62
-4.3 Open Surface Losses to Air During Container Cleaning (Release 2) 64
-4.4 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Unloading the Adhesive Component
 (Release 3) 65
-4.5 Dust Generation from Transfer Operations Released to Air, or Collected
 and Released to Water, Incineration, or Landfill (Release 4) 66
-4.6 Vented Losses to Air During Process Operations (Release 5) 68
-4.7 Adhesive Product Sampling Wastes Disposed to Water, Incineration, or
 Landfill (Release 6) 70
-4.8 Open Surface Losses to Air During Product Sampling (Release 7) 70
-4.9 Equipment Cleaning Releases to Water, Incineration or Landfill (Release 8) 72
-4.10 Open Surface Losses to Air During Equipment Cleaning (Release 9) 73
-4.11 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Loading Adhesive Product into
 Transport Containers (Release 10) 74
-4.12 Off-Spec Product Released to Water, Incineration or Landfill (Release 11) 76
5. Occupational Exposure Assessments 77
-5.1 Personal Protective Equipment 79
-5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site 79
-5.3 Exposure from Unloading Solid or Liquid Chemicals (Exposure A) 80
-5.4 Exposure to Solids or Liquids During Container Cleaning (Exposure B) 84
-5.5 Inhalation Exposure During Operation of Open Mixing Vessels (Exposure C) 88
-5.6 Exposure from Sampling Liquid Adhesive Product (Exposure D) 89
-5.7 Exposure to Liquids During the Equipment Cleaning of Mixers and Other
 Process Equipment (Exposure E) 91
-5.8 Exposure from Packaging Adhesive Product (Exposure F) 93
6. Sample Calculations 96
-6.1 General Facility Estimates 96
-6.2 Release Assessments 99 
-6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments 107
7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work 115
8 References 118
Appendix A. Estimation Equation Summary and Default Parameter Values 123
Appendix B. Background Information and Equations / Defaults for the Standard EPS Environemntal Release and Worker Exposure Models 131
Appendix C. Data Received from Environment Canada 165

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