Transition to Sustainable Buildings

Transition to Sustainable Buildings

Strategies and Opportunities to 2050 You do not have access to this content

International Energy Agency

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27 June 2013
9789264202955 (PDF) ;9789264202412(print)

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Buildings are the largest energy consuming sector in the world, and account for over one-third of total final energy consumption and an equally important source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Achieving significant energy and emissions reduction in the buildings sector is a challenging but achievable policy goal.

Transition to Sustainable Buildings presents detailed scenarios and strategies to 2050, and demonstrates how to reach deep energy and emissions reduction through a combination of best available technologies and intelligent public policy. This IEA study is an indispensible guide for decision makers, providing informative insights on:

-Cost-effective options, key technologies and opportunities in the buildings sector;
-Solutions for reducing electricity demand growth and flattening peak demand;
-Effective energy efficiency policies and lessons learned from different countries;
-Future trends and priorities for ASEAN, Brazil, China, the European Union, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa and the United States;
-Implementing a systems approach using innovative products in a cost effective manner; and
-Pursuing whole-building (e.g. zero energy buildings) and advanced-component policies to initiate a fundamental shift in the way energy is consumed.

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Table of Contents

Executive Summary
Chapter 1. Buildings Overview

-Key findings
-Near-term recommendations
-The buildings sector, a key part of the energy system
--Integrated energy system
--Synergies between the buildings and power sectors
--Regional variations and factors influencing buildings energy consumption
-Current status of energy and emissions in the buildings sector
--Trends in buildings energy use and CO2 emissions
-The ETP 2 degree C Scenario for the buildings sector
--Modelling framework for the buildings sector
--Scenario results
--The residential sub-sector
--The services sub-sector
-Investment needs and benefits of a low-carbon buildings sector
-Recommended actions to deliver a sustainable buildings sector
Chapter 2. Regional Overview and Recommendations
-Key findings
-Near-term recommendations
-2. Brazil
-3. China
-4. European Union (27)
-5. India
-6. Mexico
-7. Russia
-8. South Africa
-9. United States
Chapter 3. Building Envelopes

-Key findings
-Near-term recommendations
-Vision for building envelope improvements
-Opportunities to improve building envelopes
-Windows and doors
--Energy efficiency options
--Best available technology (BAT) and future developments
-Insulation (walls, roofs, foundations and floors)
--Optimal insulation levels
--Foundations and floors
-Air sealing
--Energy efficiency options
--BAT and future developments
-Building design optimisation
--Passive solar design
--Solar reflective technologies
-Future pathways and RDD&D priorities
--Development of new technology
--New construction in developing countries
--Retrofitting the existing stock of buildings
Chapter 4. Heating and Cooling Technologies
-Key findings
-Near-term recommendations
-Vision for heating and cooling
-Space heating
--Traditional boilers and furnaces
--Condensing boilers and furnaces
--Biomass heaters
--Electric resistance heaters
--Heat pumps
-Water heating
--Instantaneous water heaters
--Heat pump water heaters
Space cooling
--Split systems and packaged unit cooling
--Dehumidification systems
-Solar thermal technologies
--Collector design
--Solar cooling
--Solar combination systems
--Solar thermal technologies for district heating and cooling
-Co-generation and waste heat opportunities
--Systems performance and benefits
--Barriers to increased co-generation in buildings
--District heating and cooling with waste heat utilisation
-Thermal energy storage
-Future pathways and RDD&D priorities
--Heat pumps
--Solar thermal
--Co-generation, waste heat utilisation and distributed networks
Chapter 5. Lighting, Cooking and Appliances
-Key findings
-Near-term recommendations
-Vision for lighting, cooking and appliances
-Ownership and energy consumption
--Energy efficiency options
--Biomass for cooking
--Energy efficiency options
-Appliances and buildings equipment
--Washing machines and clothes dryers
-Future pathways and RDD&D priorities
Chapter 6. Policies for Buildings
-Key findings
-Near-term recommendations
-Policies to overcome market barriers
-Component-level policies
--Research and development
--Field evaluation: validation of performance
--Demonstrations (case studies): initial market introduction
--Incentives: moving beyond a niche market
--Appliance and equipment labelling and education
--Mandatory policies
--Challenges to policy implementation
--Integration of component-level policies
-Systems-level policies
--Whole-building programmes to promote energy efficiency
--Building codes
--Existing building efficiency improvement programmes
--Zero-energy and very low-energy buildings
Annex A. Analytical Framework 247
Annex B. International Technology Collaboration and Building Related Organisations 257
Annex C. Abbreviations, Acronyms and Units of Measure 259
Annex D. Definitions, Regional and Country Groupings 264
Annex E. References 269
Annex F. List of Figures, Tables and Boxes

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