Energy Technology Perspectives

International Energy Agency

Frequency :
2079-2603 (online)
2079-259X (print)
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Published every two years, this report from the International Energy Agency examines the extent to which an energy technology revolution is taking place, the key technologies that are emerging, the costs and benefits of these technologies, and policies needed to foster their use.
Energy Technology Perspectives 2014

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International Energy Agency

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Publication Date :
12 May 2014
Pages :
9789264208018 (PDF) ; 9789264208001 (print)

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Starting from the premise that electricity will be an increasingly important vector in energy systems of the future, Energy Technology Perspectives 2014 (ETP 2014) takes a deep dive into actions needed to support deployment of sustainable options for generation, distribution and end-use consumption. In addition to modelling the global outlook to 2050 under different scenarios for more than 500 technology options, ETP 2014 explores the possibility of "pushing the limits" in six key areas: Solar Power: Possibly the Dominant Source by 2050; Natural Gas in Low-Carbon Electricity Systems; Electrifying Transport: How E-mobility Replace Oil; Electricity Storage: Costs, Value and Competitiveness; Attracting Finance for Low-Carbon Generation; and Power Generation in India. ETP 2014 purchase includes extensive downloadable data, figures and visualisations.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary 8
Acknowledgements 17
Chapter 1. The Global Outlook 25
-Changes that alter previous energy projections 31
-Sector development in the future energy system 35
-Investment needs and fuel savings from transforming the energy system 51
-Policy action to lead the transition 53
Chapter 2. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 59
-Tracking Progress: How and Against What? 60
-Renewable Power 64
-Nuclear Power 70
-Natural Gas-Fired Power 72
-Coal-Fired Power 74
-Carbon Capture and Storage 76
-Industry 78
-Chemicals and Petrochemicals 80
-Iron and Steel 82
-Transport 84
-Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles 86
-Biofuels 88
-Buildings Energy Efficiency 90
-Building Envelope 92
-Appliances and Equipment 94
-Co-generation and District Heating and Cooling 96
-Smart Grids 98
-Getting "Smart" about Staying on Line 100
-Technology Overview Notes 109
Chapter 3. Electrification of the Energy System 119
-The increasingly essential and evolving role of electricity 122
-Implications for environment, security and economy 124
-Recommended actions for the near term 133
Chapter 4. Solar Power: Possibly the Dominant Source by 2050 137
-Solar technologies in the electricity system: Recent trends 139
-Future role of solar in the global electricity system 147
-Recommended actions for the near term 162
Chapter 5. Natural Gas in Low-Carbon Electricity Systems 167
-Natural gas in the ETP 2014 scenarios: A summary 168
-Enabling gas-fired generation technologies to displace coal 179
-Flexible gas-fired generation to support VRE generation 189
-Recommended actions for the near term 200
Chapter 6. Electrifying Transport: How Can E-Mobility Replace Oil? 207
-Electrifying transport modes: Technologies, time frames and opportunities 210
-The LETMIX 224
-The ETP 2014 2DS and 2DS-ET variant 229
-Recommended actions for the near term 233
Chapter 7. Electricity Storage: Costs, Value and Competitiveness 239
-Appeal of storing electricity 240
-Applications for electricity storage 246
-Performance and costs of electricity storage technology 252
-Energy storage for system integration 267
-Grid storage requirements in the 2DS 270
-Recommended actions for the near term 272
Chapter 8. Attracting Finance for Low-Carbon Generation 277
-Attracting financing resources 279
-The two extremes: Regulated utilities and competitive markets 288
-Intermediate solutions to promote low-carbon investments 295
-Recommended actions for the near term 301
Chapter 9. Power Generation in India 305
-India’s low-carbon growth strategy 306
-The Indian power sector today 307
-Mid-term goals for the power sector 317
-Coal 318
-Gas 324
-Nuclear 326
-Hydropower 329
-Other renewable energy technologies 330
-Recommended actions for the near term 336
Annex A. Analytical Approach 341
Annex B. Abbreviations and Acronyms 352
Annex C. Definitions, Regional and Country Groupings and Units 357
Annex D. Lists of Figures, Tables and Boxes 368