Energy Policies of IEA Countries

International Energy Agency

1990-0082 (online)
1021-3872 (print)
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This series consists of two components. The first is an annual compilation by the International Energy Agency containing a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy during the last 12 months along with summaries of individual country reports done during the period. It also presents the major findings of the latest World Energy Outlook, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. The second component is the set of country reviews produced each year. IEA countries are on a five-year review cycle, which means that approximately five countries are reviewed in detail each year and published as part of the Energy Policies of IEA Countries series.

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Sweden 2000

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International Energy Agency

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17 Oct 2000
9789264188044 (PDF) ;9789264185234(print)

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The International Energy Agency's 2000 review of Sweden's energy policies and programmes. It finds that Sweden is phasing out nuclear power that currently generates about half its electricity. One reactor was closed in 1999 and a second may be closed in 2001, if certain criteria are met. Renewables and improved efficiency in the use of energy are considered to be the only alternatives: natural gas and coal are rejected on environmental grounds; and new hydro capacity is limited by Parliament.

This report looks at the feasibility of Sweden’s plans. Two overriding concerns are evident in Swedish policy: to keep down electricity prices to maintain industrial competitiveness and economic growth, and to achieve Sweden’s target for greenhouse gas emissions. Energy taxation has been designed to support both objectives. The competitive Nordic electricity market has been important in maintaining low electricity prices. Sweden’s per capita carbon dioxide emissions are among the lowest of all OECD countries, largely because of reliance on nuclear and hydro-electric power. The potential contribution of natural gas to balancing economic and environmental objectives in the Swedish context should not be dismissed. Energy efficiency improvements will have to be large and sustained to justify closure of nuclear capacity – possibly larger than recent trends suggest may be achieved.

In addition to these long-term issues, the Swedish electricity supply industry faces the need to adapt the regulatory and institutional framework to an increasingly open electricity market, and to integrate environmental objectives within this framework.

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Table of Contents

1. Summary and Recommendations
2. Conduct of the Review
3. General Energy Policy
4. Energy and the Environment
5. Energy Efficiency
6. Electricity
7. Nuclear and Renewables
8. Oil, Gas, and Coal
9. Energy Research and Development
Annex A: Energy Balances and Key Statistical Data
Annex B: Intenraitonal Energy Agency "Shared Goals"
Annex C: Glossary and List of Abbreviations

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