Energy Policies of IEA Countries

International Energy Agency

1990-0082 (online)
1021-3872 (print)
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This series consists of two components. The first is an annual compilation by the International Energy Agency containing a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy during the last 12 months along with summaries of individual country reports done during the period. It also presents the major findings of the latest World Energy Outlook, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. The second component is the set of country reviews produced each year. IEA countries are on a five-year review cycle, which means that approximately five countries are reviewed in detail each year and published as part of the Energy Policies of IEA Countries series.

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2014 Review

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International Energy Agency

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01 Dec 2014
9789264190832 (PDF)

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In October 2014, the European Union (EU) set ambitious climate and energy targets for 2030, confirming its global leadership on climate change. But while the targets are in place, the legal framework to implement them is yet to be developed. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union – 2014 provides recommendations on how the targets can be reached in a cost-effective and integrated way, while fostering the competitiveness and energy security of the European Union. The recommendations build on the lessons learned since the first IEA in-depth review of the European Union in 2008.

Since then, EU energy policy has been driving energy market integration, cross-border trade and the implementation of energy and climate targets by 2020. The European Union is a global leader in transitioning towards a low-carbon economy: Europe’s unprecedented renewable energy boom, its action on energy efficiency and the economic downturn have all contributed to a drop in greenhouse gas emissions. However, energy security concerns have increased. Ageing nuclear and coal plants will be shut, and EU energy systems and markets must accommodate growing shares of variable renewable energy. The European Union seeks to foster access to diversified gas and oil supplies to reduce dependence on single suppliers.

Making the most of its diversity, the European Union must strengthen the internal energy market to enhance both its energy security and the competitiveness of its industry. Yet, important interconnections are missing, and, despite the opening of the wholesale market and decreasing prices , concentrated and regulated retail markets do not deliver benefits to consumers. As member states adopt different decarbonisation pathways and energy policy choices, a strong “Energy Union” is needed with effective energy market rules and policies that support the development of low-carbon technologies, within the new energy and climate policy framework for 2030.

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Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary and Key Recommendations 11
-Executive summary 11
-Key recommendations 20
2. General Energy Policy 25
-Overview 25
-Supply and demand 27
-External energy relations 33
-Key EU climate and energy policies 35
-Assessment 49
-Recommendations 55
-References 55
3. Climate Change  57
-Overview 57
-Energy-related CO2 emissions 58
-Policies and measures 61
-Progress on GHG emissions, targets and projections 63
-Climate change vunerability and adaptation 72
-Assessment 74
-Recommendations 77
-References 78
4. Energy Efficiency 79
-Overview 79
-Institutions 81
-Targets and objectives 82
-Policies and measures 84
-Assessment 92
-IEA 25 energy efficiency recommendations 95
-Recommendations 96
-References 97
5. Electricity 101
-Overview 101
-Supply and demand 102
-Regulatory framework 107
-Wholesale electricity markets 112
-EU electricity market developments 117
-Security of electricity supply 125
-Retail markets and prices 138
-Electricity retail prices 139
-Smart meters and smart markets 141
-Assessment 142
-Recommendations 146
-References 146
6. Oil 149
-Overview 149
-Supply and demand 150
-Oil market and infrastructure 156
-Regulatory framework 158
-Oil prices and taxes 159
-Security of oil supply 161
-Assessment 167
-Recommendations 170
-References 170
7. Natural Gas 171
-Overview 171
-Supply and demand 172
-Natural gas infrastructure 177
-Regulatory framework 183
-Common rules for the EU natural gas market 186
-Wholesale gas markets 192
-Natural gas retail markets 194
-Security of gas supply 197
-Assessment 211
-Recommendations 213
-References 214
8. Coal  217
-Overview 217
-Supply and demand 217
-Policies and measures 222
-Assessment 224
-Recommendations 225
-References  226
9. Renewable Energy 227
-Overview 27
-Institutions 228
-Policies and support measures 228
-Renewable energy in final consumption 229
-Assessment 245
-Recommendations 249
-References 250
10. Nuclear Energy 251
-Overview 251
-History 253
-Institutional framework 254
-Nuclear energy policy in the European Union: Safety, safeguards and security 256
-Plant upgrading, plant life management, and lifetime extensions 259
-Nuclear power plant construction 261
-Nuclear power plant and fuel cycle facility decommissioning 264
-Assessment 266
-Recommendations 268
-References 269
11. Energy Research, Development and Demonstration 273
-Overview 273
-EU energy RD&D policies 274
-Funding 276
-Institutional framework 282
-Monitoring and evaluation 286
-International collaboration 286
-Assessment 287
-Recommendations 289
-References 290
Annex A: Organisation of the Review 293
Annex B: Energy Balances and Key Statistical Data 297
Annex C: International Energy Agency Shared Goals 303
Annex D: Glossary and List of Abbreviations 305

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