Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries

International Energy Agency

2307-0897 (online)
2307-0889 (print)
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For many years, the International Energy Agency has been conducting comprehensive periodic  reviews of energy policy of its member countries. These reviews cover all major forms of energy produced, imported and consumed in the subject countries, and address such issues as the various markets, prices and taxes, regulation and competition, and environmental concerns. These reviews have been published under the series, Energy Policies fo OECD Countries.  Increasingly, however, non-member countries have been requesting these reviews and these have all been consolidated under the series, Energy Policies beyond OECD Countries. Unlike those done for the OECD countries, these reviews are only done on request, and are not done with a fixed periodicity.

Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Russia 2014

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International Energy Agency

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16 June 2014
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9789264211506 (PDF)

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Russia holds among the world’s largest resources of gas, oil and coal. Its liquids production has reached historical highs, yet major additional upstream investments and technology upgrades will be needed to sustain these levels in the long term. Since the IEA’s last review of Russia’s energy policies in 2002, the power sector has also liberalised considerably. However, the Russian economy remains largely inefficient, with twice as much energy used per GDP compared with IEA member countries. Ambitious energy efficiency policies have been introduced but have not led to significant improvements so far. At the same time, the electricity and district heating infrastructure is ageing and requires rapid investments. Russia’s overall energy sector would benefit considerably from a more competitive, market-oriented environment.

While a number of policies aimed at modernising the energy sector and increasing its efficiency and sustainability are being developed or implemented, further reforms are needed. This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Russia and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements.

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Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary and Key Recommendations 9
-Executive summary 9
-Key recommendations 14
2. General Energy Policy 17
-Country overview 17
-Energy sector achievements and developments 25
-Energy policy challenges and opportunities 31
-Assessment 39
-Recommendations 44
3. Energy Efficiency 45
-Overview 45
-Final energy use 46
-Institutions 48
-Policies and measures 49
-Assessment 59
-Recommendations 62
4. Climate Change 63
-Overview 63
-Targets and objectives 64
-Energy‐related CO2 emissions 66
-Institutions 68
-Policies and measures 69
-Impacts of climate change on the energy sector and adaptation measures 74
-Assessment 76
-Recommendations 77
5. Natural Gas 81
-Overview 81
-Supply 82
-Imports 97
-Demand 97
-Gas transmission system 101
-Market structure, regulation and reform 102
-Assessment 119
-Recommendations 123
6. Oil 125
-Overview 125
-Supply 126
-Market structure of upstream production 138
-Demand 141
-Taxation 144
-Refineries 148
-Infrastructure 151
-Crude oil and oil products exports 156
-Assessment 164
-Recommendations 166
7. Coal 167
-Overview 167
-Supply 168
-Consumption 170
-Exports 172
-Challenges of the Russian coal industry 174
-Current coal policy developments 178
-Assessment 180
-Recommendations 181
8. Electricity 183
-Overview 183
-Supply and demand 184
-Institutions 192
-Market design and regulation 193
-Market structure 196
-Networks 198
-Electricity prices and taxes 208
-Assessment 211
-Recommendations 217
9. Renewable Energy 219
-Overview 219
-Supply and demand 220
-Policies and support measures 225
-Assessment 238
-Recommendations 242
10. Nuclear Energy 243
-Overview 243
-Nuclear capacity 244
-Institutional and legal framework 250
-Structure of Rosatom’s nuclear power complex 251
-Front and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle: Nuclear waste management and decommissioning 254
-Nuclear safety and regulation 255
-Education and reasearch 256
-Assessment 256
-Recommendations 258
11. District Heating 259
-Overview 259
-Supply and demand 260
-Key policies and legislation 261
-The modernisation challenge: Energy‐saving potential and quality of services 268
-Assessment 274
-Recommendations 277
12. Energy Technology Research and Deployment 281
-Overview 281
-Policies 282
-International collaboration 292
-Assessment 294
-Recommendations 296
Annex A: Organisation of the review 299
Annex B: International Energy Agency Shared Goals 303
Annex C: Glossary and list of abbreviations 305