Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries

International Energy Agency

2307-0897 (online)
2307-0889 (print)
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For many years, the International Energy Agency has been conducting comprehensive periodic  reviews of energy policy of its member countries. These reviews cover all major forms of energy produced, imported and consumed in the subject countries, and address such issues as the various markets, prices and taxes, regulation and competition, and environmental concerns. These reviews have been published under the series, Energy Policies fo OECD Countries.  Increasingly, however, non-member countries have been requesting these reviews and these have all been consolidated under the series, Energy Policies beyond OECD Countries. Unlike those done for the OECD countries, these reviews are only done on request, and are not done with a fixed periodicity.

Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Morocco 2014

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International Energy Agency

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04 Nov 2014
9789264211483 (PDF)

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The Kingdom of Morocco is over 90 % dependent on energy imports, so a major challenge is to develop indigenous resources. Topography and climate are favourable to wind, solar and additional hydropower. By 2020 Morocco aims to derive more than 40 % of its electrical capacity from these sources, strengthening both energy security and sustainability. At the same time, Rabat aims to retain its attractive investment conditions for oil and gas exploration.

To reduce the burden of energy subsidies, transport fuels have progressively been brought up towards full market prices, and electricity tariffs are also being adjusted upward. Energy efficiency has been elevated to a national priority, with a range of measures on lighting, building standards, appliances and vehicles.

Morocco’s electricity grid now covers more than 98 % of households. The sector is being progressively liberalised, with foreign investment in both renewables and coal-fired power stations. The energy mix is diversified further by imports of gas from Algeria and electricity from Spain.

Morocco has established new national agencies to promote energy efficiency, renewable energy, and research and development. Co‑operation on climate change within the United Nations framework is widely perceived as exemplary. Persevering in this direction could help Morocco emerge as a regional leader in energy sector reform, as well as in the renewable energy technologies in which it has a natural advantage.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Morocco and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide policy makers in the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

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Table of Contents

Foreword 3

1. Executive summary and key recommendations 9
-Executive summary 9
-Key recommendations 11
2. General energy policy 15
-Country overview 15
-Supply and demand 17
-Institutions 20
-Energy strategy challenges and opportunities 21
-Recommendations 25
3. Climate change 27
-Overview 27
-Energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions 28
-Environment and sustainable development 30
-The energy sector 31
-Assessment 38
-Recommendations 38
4. Energy efficiency 39
-Overview 39
-Planned and/or implemented energy efficiency polices and measures 42
-Institutions 43
-Financing of energy efficiency measures 44
-Assessment 44
-Recommendations 48
5. Electricity  53
-Overview 53
-Market and regulatory framework 53
-Demand 56
-National production 58
-National interconnections grid 60
-Assessment 62
-Recommendations 63
6. Renewable energy 65
-Overview 65
-Supply and demand 65
-Institutions 72
-Renewables financing 73
-Opportunities for industrial integration 74
-Legislative and regulatory framework 74
-Research and development (R&D) 75
-Assessment 75
-Recommendations 79
7. Oil  81
-Overview 81
-Exploration and production 82
-Supply and demand 83
-Refining 85
-Logistics and distribution 86
-Political framework 88
-Competitive environment 88
-Emergency response policy 89
-Prices 90
-Assessment 92
-Recommendations 94
8. Coal 95
-Overview 95
-Supply and demand 95
-Assessment 99
-Recommendations 99
9. Natural gas  101
-Overview 101
-Supply and demand 101
-Legislative and regulatory framework 104
-Infrastructure 104
-Security of supply 105
-Retail supply and market 105
-Recommendations 105
10. Energy technology research and development 109
-Overview 109
-Institutional framework 110
-Nuclear energy 114
-Assessment 114
-Recommendations 115
Annex A. Organisation of the review 119
Annex B. International Energy Agency “Shared Goals” 123
Annex C. Glossary and list of abbreviations 125

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