Distributed Generation in Liberalised Electricity Markets

Distributed Generation in Liberalised Electricity Markets You do not have access to this content

International Energy Agency

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26 June 2002
9789264175976 (PDF) ;9789264198029(print)

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Electric power in OECD countries is mostly produced by large central generating stations, then transmitted along high voltage lines to local distribution systems that carry it to final consumers. Distributed generation plants are different. They produce power on an electricity consumer’s own site or at the local distribution substation and can supply power directly to the customer or to the local distribution network. Distributed generation technologies include engines, small turbines, fuel cells, and photovoltaic systems.

Distributed generation technologies are already having a large impact, particularly for high- reliability applications, as a source of emergency capacity or as a way of deferring the expansion of a local network. In some markets, these plants are displacing more costly grid electricity. Globally, more capacity for distributed generation was ordered in 2000 than for nuclear power.

This book provides a guide to energy policy makers on this growing phenomenon. It surveys the current situation and market status of distributed generation in selected OECD countries, including the impact of current energy policies.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Distributed Generation Technologies
Chapter 3 Economics of Distributed Generation
Chapter 4 Distributed generation in Japan, United States, Netherlands and the United Kingdom
Chapter 5 Policy Issues
Chapter 6 Future of Distributed Generation
Chapter 7 Conclusions and Recommendations
Annex I Comparing Energy Consumption and Emissions from On-site CHP and Conventional Heat and Power Generation
List of Tables
Table 1 Distributed Generation Technology Data
Table 2 Indicative Costs for Various Distributed Generation Technologies
Table 3 Capital Costs and Efficiencies of CHP technologies
Table 4 European Union CHP 1998
Table 5 Cost of a one-hour power outage for different US businesses
Table 6 Economics of Gas CHP in Japan
Table 7 Cogeneration System Capacity by Sector and Generator Type (MW)
Table 8 Comparison of Distributed Generation Issues in Japan, United States, the Netherlands, and United Kingdom
Table 9 Estimates of "Embedded Benefit" to UK Embedded (Distributed) Generators ($/MWh)
Table 10 New South Wales (Australia) Distribution Loss factors
Table 11 Japanese NOx limits Applicable to Cogeneration Systems
List of Figures
Figure 1 Distributed Generation and Energy Storage in an Electricity Network
Figure 2 Ratio of Industrial Natural Gas/Electricity Prices in Selected Countries
Figure 3 Ratio of Household Natural Gas/Electricity Prices in Selected Countries
Figure 4 Comparison of PV Costs/Output to Household Electricity Rates in Selected OECD Countries
Figure 5 NOx Emissions from Distributed generation Technologies (kg/MWh)
Figure 6 CO2 Emissions from Distributed Generation Technologies (kg/MWh)

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