Connecting People with Jobs

Connecting People with Jobs

Activation Policies in the United Kingdom You do not have access to this content

Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8114161e.pdf
  • PDF
  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/employment/connecting-people-with-jobs_9789264217188-en
  • READ
Author(s):
OECD
Publication Date :
15 July 2014
Pages :
252
ISBN :
9789264217188 (PDF) ; 9789264217126 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/9789264217188-en

Hide / Show Abstract

This report examines recent activation policies in the United Kingdom aimed at moving people back into work. It offers insight into how countries can improve the effectiveness of their employment services and also control spending on benefits. The United Kingdom's policies have helped limit the rise in unemployment during the crisis. It has been at the forefront of reform efforts by OECD countries to transform and modernise policies designed to help the unemployed find work, through major new programmes such as Universal Credit and the Work Programme. Although time is needed for these to gain momentum as well as for a full evaluation of their impact to be carried out, the report identifies a number of areas where consideration should be given to additional measures or adjustments to existing ones.

Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Table of Contents

  • Mark Click to Access
  • Click to Access: 
      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8114161ec001.pdf
    • PDF
    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/employment/connecting-people-with-jobs/foreword_9789264217188-1-en
    • READ
    Foreword

    Giving people better opportunities to participate actively in the labour market improves well-being. It also helps countries to cope with rapid population ageing by mobilising more fully each country’s potential labour resources. However, weak labour market attachment of some groups in society reflects a range of barriers to working or moving up the jobs ladder. Therefore, the OECD is carrying out a new review of activation policies to encourage greater labour market participation of all groups in society with a special focus on the most disadvantaged groups who face the greatest barriers and disincentives to finding work. This will include a series of country studies, Connecting People with Jobs, which will provide an analysis and assessment of how well activation policies in selected OECD countries are performing in fostering more inclusive labour markets that help all groups in society to move into productive and rewarding jobs. This report for the United Kingdom is the first country study to be published in this series.

  • Click to Access: 
      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8114161ec002.pdf
    • PDF
    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/employment/connecting-people-with-jobs/acronyms-and-abbreviations_9789264217188-2-en
    • READ
    Acronyms and abbreviations
  • Click to Access: 
      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8114161ec003.pdf
    • PDF
    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/employment/connecting-people-with-jobs/executive-summary_9789264217188-3-en
    • READ
    Executive summary

    The United Kingdom has a long tradition of activation policies to promote the effective reintegration into employment of working-age benefit recipients which helped limit the rise in unemployment even during the global financial and economic crisis. It has also been at the forefront of efforts by OECD countries to transform and modernise their activation policies. This continues with two major recent initiatives, the Universal Credit (UC) and the Work Programme.

  • Click to Access: 
      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8114161ec004.pdf
    • PDF
    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/employment/connecting-people-with-jobs/assessment-and-recommendations_9789264217188-4-en
    • READ
    Assessment and recommendations

    The United Kingdom labour market weathered the recent recession moderately well: total unemployment increased from trough to peak by about 50% and the working-age labour force participation rate reached 77%, a 20-year high, in 2012. After a fairly limited fall, total employment recovered and it recently reached 30 million for the first time. However, the fall in productivity growth in the United Kingdom has been particularly sharp, with GDP expected to surpass its 2008 level only in 2014. The UK employment rate is above the international average but still some way below the highest rates in the OECD. As in many other countries, during the recession the youth employment rate fell but the older worker rate did not.

  • Click to Access: 
      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8114161ec005.pdf
    • PDF
    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/employment/connecting-people-with-jobs/the-background-to-active-labour-market-policies-in-the-united-kingdom_9789264217188-5-en
    • READ
    The background to active labour market policies in the United Kingdom

    The UK labour market weathered the recent recession moderately well: unemployment continues to fall and the employment rate is close to its pre-recession level, and is above the international average although still some way below the highest rates in the OECD. The fall in productivity growth in the United Kingdom has been particularly sharp, with GDP expected to surpass its 2008 level only in 2014. The other salient features of the UK labour market include a fairly high level of female employment, albeit somewhat below the EU average for mothers with younger children, and comparatively low for lone parents. Immigration and natural growth notwithstanding, the United Kingdom will experience significant ageing in the next few decades. Despite high tertiary education attainment rates there is a risk that the pool of highly skilled adults in the United Kingdom will shrink relative to that of other countries. The United Kingdom is characterised by flexible labour market regulation for both permanent and temporary contracts. A minimum wage was introduced in 1998; its level relative to the median wage is towards the middle of the range among OECD countries.

  • Click to Access: 
      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8114161ec006.pdf
    • PDF
    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/employment/connecting-people-with-jobs/unemployment-and-related-benefits_9789264217188-6-en
    • READ
    Unemployment and related benefits

    The UK benefit system has been transformed over the years as unemployment rose to high levels in the 1970s and 1980s, then the caseloads of incapacity and lone parent benefits rose to high levels, and more recently working-age expenditure on tax credits, and child, secondary disability and housing benefits has increased sharply. Much of the current benefit expenditure comes with no or limited labour market conditions, and applies high marginal effective tax rates to workers in low-paid jobs. Since the recession, restrictive measures have been introduced across the range of benefits. The Universal Credit, which is in the early stages of national roll-out, greatly reduces complexity in the structure of the benefit system and ensures that work always pays, but it is not expected to reduce marginal effective tax rates on low-paid workers and may encourage part-time and intermittent work. The traditional procedures for identifying unemployment situations will not be applicable and further development of the new procedures for out-of-work and in-work conditionality is needed.

  • Click to Access: 
      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8114161ec007.pdf
    • PDF
    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/employment/connecting-people-with-jobs/the-role-of-the-uk-public-employment-service-in-job-brokerage-and-activation-strategies_9789264217188-7-en
    • READ
    The role of the UK Public Employment Service in job brokerage and activation strategies

    The United Kingdom has a long tradition of activation policies to promote the quick reintegration of working-age benefit recipients. Job-search requirements for claimants of unemployment benefits can be traced back to the late 1980s and a standard way of monitoring job-search efforts through fortnightly job-search review meetings was introduced with the JSA regime in 1996. From the early 2000s, activation measures were introduced for claimants of lone parent and incapacity benefits. From 2008, access to lone parent and fully-inactive incapacity benefits was significantly restricted and caseloads fell more rapidly. The United Kingdom continues to be at the forefront of reform efforts by OECD countries to transform and modernise their activation policies. This chapter identifies a number of areas where consideration should be given to additional measures or adjustments to existing ones.

  • Click to Access: 
      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8114161ec008.pdf
    • PDF
    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/employment/connecting-people-with-jobs/quasi-market-arrangements-in-the-uk-work-programme_9789264217188-8-en
    • READ
    Quasi-market arrangements in the UK Work Programme

    In the United Kingdom, some employment programmes for the unemployed have been outsourced using quasi-market arrangements since the 1980s. The Work Programme, introduced in June 2011, expands quasi-market arrangements to cover all long-term unemployed and several other large client groups. Its commissioning model can be summarised as follows: a market structure with large contracts held by few prime providers, which work with a network of sub-contractors; a more fully outcome-based payment model with strong emphasis on sustained outcomes; limited prescription of minimum service levels through a "black box" delivery model; high performance expectations; and ongoing performance competition between providers. This chapter assesses the Work Programme’s performance to date and addresses the challenges that remain for achieving better labour market outcomes for participants referred to the programme.

  • Add to Marked List