Trend in Eduction Participation and Outputs
Education brings a wide range of benefi ts for both individuals and societies, which is why it is recognised both as a human right and as instrumental to economic growth and social cohesion. The steady expansion of education systems in WEI countries between 1995 and 2003, the period under study in this report, refl ects the increased demand for educational opportunities, especially at upper secondary and tertiary levels. The higher education and skill levels which are associated with these programmes can add further momentum to improvements in outcomes for both individuals and societies. But expanding the range and benefi ts of educational opportunity goes beyond...
Responding to Increased Participation
There is increasing evidence that education matters, not only for the personal development, health status, social inclusion and labour market prospects of individual learners (see Box 1.1), but also for the broader economic performance of their countries (OECD/UIS, 2003). As the world has entered the age of the knowledge economy, education and human capital play a critical role in driving economic growth. This is true for the world’s most advanced economies, but also in those emerging economies that are currently experiencing profound...
The impact of recent economic and social problems is still evident in Argentina. GDP per capita decreased, in real terms, by more than 10 per cent between 1995 and 2002. Some 46 per cent of the population fall under the national poverty line, a sharp contrast to conditions in 1992-1995 when 22 per cent of the population was poor. And, yet, Argentina still has the highest GDP per capita (PPP$ 11 240) among...
This country has the leading economy and the largest population in South America. GDP per capita is in the top third of WEI countries, but income distribution is highly unequal. The poorest 20 per cent of the population accounts for only 2.2 per cent of national income. Education indicators also present an uneven picture – with signs of significant progress tempered by significant challenges...
Chile has been among the best economic performers in the WEI group of countries. GDP expanded by more than 30 per cent from 1995 to 2002, giving Chile the second-highest GDP per capita in the group. Meanwhile, efforts to expand education have been facilitated by the fact that population growth has slowed almost to a halt.
Enrolment in education in China has expanded by 25 per cent since 1995, the third-strongest growth rate among WEI countries since the mid-1990s. With the exception of primary education, enrolment grew at every level of education. At the tertiary level, the number of students more than doubled. The number of primary school pupils declined as did the population of primary school age.
The education system in Egypt operates within the contexts of limited national resources and growing demographic pressures. The GDP per capita of PPP$3 669 is 33 per cent lower than the WEI average while the youth population keeps growing. Yet, compared to other WEI countries, Egypt enjoyed substantial economic growth during the period 1995 to 2001. Growth slowed after 2001, but GDP still grew by 3 per cent in 2002.
The Indian economy grew rapidly during the 1990s, averaging 6 per cent a year. Progress in many social indicators was also registered, e.g. the poverty rate was signifi cantly reduced and the literacy rate rose1. However, more than one in four Indians still live in poverty, and there are signifi cant social disparities.
Between 1995 and 2002, development in Indonesia was dominated by the Asian economic crisis of 1997 and an ensuing national political crisis. However, growth in real GDP per capita was substantial before the crisis and income per capita rebounded by 2000 and began increasing again. Still, Indonesia has the second-lowest income per person among WEI countries at less than one-half of the group average. Despite the crises, poverty reduction has been considerable with extreme poverty falling from 21.0 to 6.7 per cent between 1990 and 2000. These data imply that the UN Millennium Development...
Jamaica’s education system operates in the context of diffi cult economic conditions. Infl ation and unemployment rates are high and the economy, which is heavily dependent on the service sector, especially tourism, declined sharply after the 2001 downturn in global trade and tourism. Economic growth between 1995 and 2003 was negligible and income per capita decreased slightly. Today, Jamaica stands at the lower end of WEI countries with a GDP per capita of PPP$ 3 800.
The education system in Jordan faces considerable demographic pressures. Almost 6 in 10 persons are 5 to 29-year-olds, the second-highest share in WEI countries. Over the next decade, the 5 to 19-yearold age group is projected to grow faster than any other WEI country, creating additional demand for education providers.
Malaysia has returned to robust economic growth after the 1997 Asian fi nancial crisis. It enjoys some of the most favourable economic conditions in the WEI: GDP per capita (PPP$ 8 811) is third-highest in the group.
Paraguay’s economy has stagnated, with GDP per capita averaging negative growth of -1.2 per cent per year for the decade 1993-2003. Poverty and income inequality are exceptionally high in Paraguay compared to other WEI countries. According to 2001 data, nearly one-third of the population – 2 million people – live in poverty.
Peru enjoyed positive economic development for most of the 1990s, but experienced a slowdown after 1998. Political crisis followed in 2000-2001, resulting in new elections and a new government. The economy has since responded positively to government fi scal policy and social programmes have targeted the poor. Annual growth in real GDP per capita was substantial, rising from 3.4 per cent in 1993 to 4.9 per cent in 2002.
The Philippines was immediately affected by the fi nancial crisis in Asia in 1997, but to a less severe degree than other parts of the region – economic growth returned by 1999. Overall, the Philippines experienced robust growth in GDP (30 per cent) over the period 1995-2002. However, the country has also had strong population growth: the population aged 5-14 years grew by 15 per cent, the greatest increase in WEI countries. This puts pressure on the education system to increase student numbers at all levels.
The Russian economy has made an impressive recovery since its 1998 crisis. Between 1998 and 2005, GDP expanded by an estimated 48 per cent, while real incomes grew by 46 per cent. Poverty rates were cut in half and regional disparities declined somewhat. While living standards have begun to get better, improving education and health has been more diffi cult, and signifi cant social risks remain for some segments of society.
Economically, Sri Lanka is growing but remains in the bottom quarter of WEI countries in terms of GDP per capita – PPP$ 3 426 in 2002. Between 1996 and 2002, per capita income grew by 2.5 per cent. However, during the same period, poverty reduction was modest, with the share of the population living in poverty falling from 28.8 to 22.7 per cent.
The 1997 Asian fi nancial crisis had severe consequences in Thailand where the currency lost half of its value. Although the economy rebounded with GDP growth of 6.9 per cent in 2003, the SARS crisis contributed to continuing uncertainty. However, with GDP per capita of PPP$ 6 740, Thailand is one of the wealthiest WEI countries.
Between 1961 and 2002, the Tunisian economy grew annually by 5 per cent while per capita income tripled by 2001. During this period, literacy levels and educational attainments increased signifi cantly, especially among women1. The country has reduced the overall incidence of poverty from 16 per cent in 1990 to 10 per cent in 2000, which refl ects progress towards the achievement of the MDG target of halving poverty by 2015.
Uruguay still struggles to recover from economic recessions of 1999-2001 and the 2002 crisis which precipitated a drop in GDP per capita of 11 per cent. The recession left one-third of the population living below the poverty line. Yet, there have been substantial improvements in the economic situation since then. And, demographic demands are relatively light – 5 to 14-year-olds represent only 16 per cent of the total population, third-lowest in the WEI, and 15 to 19-year-olds represent 8 per cent, second-lowest in the WEI group.
Since the late 1990s, Zimbabwe has been struggling with a wide range of economic and social problems, including soaring infl ation and an HIV/AIDS pandemic. The education system faces high demand due to a large school-age population. More than one-third of the population is between the ages of 5 and 19 years. However, due primarily to the impact of HIV/AIDS, the population of 5 to 14-year-olds has not grown since 1995.
Add to Marked List