PISA in Focus

Should all students be taught complex mathematics?
2226-0919 (online)
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PISA in Focus is a series of monthly education policy-oriented notes designed to describe a PISA topic in a concise, user-friendly way.
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Page: 1 (N° 65) , 2 (N° 15) | Next
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  N° 65   06 Sep 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/should-all-students-be-taught-complex-mathematics_5jlsh10gd6lr-en
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Should all students be taught complex mathematics?
Exposure to complex mathematics concepts and tasks is related to higher performance in PISA among all students, including socio-economically disadvantaged students. Working on complex problems without individualised support can increase mathematics anxiety among weaker students. In most...
  N° 64   12 July 2016 Click to Access: 
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Are there differences in how advantaged and disadvantaged students use the Internet?
Even when all students, including the most disadvantaged, have easy access to the Internet,a digital divide, based on socio-economic status, still persists in how students use technology. In the five Nordic countries, as well as in Hong Kong-China, the Netherlands and Switzerland, over 98% of...
  N° 63   20 June 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/are-disadvantaged-students-given-equal-opportunities-to-learn-mathematics_5jlwpxwblzjf-en
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Are disadvantaged students given equal opportunities to learn mathematics?
Some 65% of socio-economically advantaged students reported that they know well or have often heard of the concept of quadratic function, on average across OECD countries; but only 43% of disadvantaged students so reported. On average across OECD countries, the 20% of students who are most...
  N° 62   24 May 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/are-low-performers-missing-learning-opportunities_5jlz6r8lvwwc-en
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Are low performers missing learning opportunities?
In almost every country and economy that participated in PISA 2012, low performers showed less perseverance than better-performing students. For instance, about 32% of low performers said they give up on solving problems easily compared to only 13% of better-performing students who so reported....
  N° 61   18 Mar 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/is-memorisation-a-good-strategy-for-learning-mathematics_5jm29kw38mlq-en
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Is memorisation a good strategy for learning mathematics?
Fewer 15-year-olds in East Asian countries reported that they use memorisation than did 15‑year‑olds in some of the English-speaking countries to whom they are often compared. In no PISA-participating education system did boys report more intensive use of memorisation than girls when learning...
  N° 60   10 Feb 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/who-are-the-low-performing-students_5jm3xh670q7g-en
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Who are the low-performing students?
No country or economy participating in PISA 2012 can claim that all of its 15-year-old students have achieved basic proficiency skills in mathematics, reading and science. Some 28% of students score below the baseline level of proficiency in at least one of those subjects, on average across...
  N° 59   12 Jan 2016 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/does-it-matter-how-much-time-students-spend-on-line-outside-of-school_5jm5fb7cq0zp-en
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Does it matter how much time students spend on line outside of school?
In 2012, 15-year-old students spent over two hours on line each day, on average across OECD countries. The most common online activities among 15-year-olds were browsing the Internet for fun and participating in social networks, with over 70% of students doing one of these every day or almost...
  N° 58   09 Dec 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/who-wants-to-become-a-teacher_5jrp3qdk2fzp-en
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Who wants to become a teacher?
Across OECD countries, 5% of students expect to work as teachers: 3% of boys and 6% of girls. The academic profile of students who expect to work as teachers varies, but in many OECD countries,students who expect to work as teachers have poorer mathematics and reading skills than other...
  N° 57   16 Nov 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/can-schools-help-to-integrate-immigrants_5jrqj7vk0jhk-en
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Can schools help to integrate immigrants?
Only in some countries is a larger proportion of immigrant students in schools related to lower student performance – and this relationship is mostly explained by the concentration of disadvantaged students in these schools. Immigrant students from the same country of origin and similar...
  N° 56   13 Oct 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-confident-are-students-in-their-ability-to-solve-mathematics-problems_5jrs3cfzg836-en
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How confident are students in their ability to solve mathematics problems?
On average across OECD countries, students’ belief that they can solve mathematics problems (mathematics self-efficacy) is associated with a difference of 49 score points in mathematics – the equivalent of one year of school. There is a strong connection between how confident students feel...
  N° 55   15 Sep 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/who-are-the-best-online-readers_5jrtmzscrhr6-en
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Who are the best online readers?
The top-performing country in the PISA assessment of digital reading was Singapore, followed by Korea, Hong Kong-China, Japan, Canada and Shanghai-China. Students in Australia, Canada, Ireland, Korea, Singapore and the United States show the most advanced web-browsing skills. More often than...
  N° 54   25 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/is-spending-more-hours-in-class-better-for-learning_5jrw21j8drmv-en
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Is spending more hours in class better for learning?
Regardless of the type of school attended (public or private, advantaged or disadvantaged), 15-year-old students spent more time in mathematics lessons in 2012 than in 2003. The average amount of time spent in mathematics classes varies by more than a factor of two across countries and...
  N° 53   09 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/can-the-performance-gap-between-immigrant-and-non-immigrant-students-be-closed_5jrxqs8mv327-en
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Can the performance gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students be closed?
The share of students with an immigrant background increased between 2003 and 2012, both in traditional and new destination countries. The performance difference in mathematics between immigrant and non-immigrant students decreased, on average, between 2003 and 2012. Differences in...
  N° 52   01 June 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-have-schools-changed-over-the-past-decade_5js04vz2cf9q-en
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How have schools changed over the past decade?
The quantity and quality of resources available to schools improved significantly between 2003 and 2012, on average across OECD countries. Greater financial investments in education provided schools with better teaching staff, instructional materials and physical infrastructure. The learning...
  N° 51   01 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-do-parents-look-for-in-their-child-s-school_5js1qfw4n6wj-en
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What do parents look for in their child's school?
When choosing a school for their child, parents in all participating countries value academic achievement highly; but they are often even more concerned about the safety and environment of the school and the school’s reputation. The children of parents who consider academic achievement very...
  N° 50   01 Apr 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/do-teacher-student-relations-affect-students-well-being-at-school_5js391zxjjf1-en
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Do teacher-student relations affect students' well-being at school?
Children spend about a third of their waking hours in school during most weeks in the year. Thus, schools have a significant impact on children’s quality of life – including their relationships with peers and adults, and their dispositions towards learning and life more generally. Longitudinal...
  N° 49   01 Mar 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-lies-behind-gender-inequality-in-education_5js4xffhhc30-en
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What Lies Behind Gender Inequality in Education?
While PISA reveals large gender differences in reading, in favour of 15-year-old girls, the gap is narrower when digital reading skills are tested. Indeed, the Survey of Adult Skills suggests that there are no significant gender differences in digital literacy proficiency among 16-29...
  N° 48   01 Feb 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/does-math-make-you-anxious_5js6b2579tnx-en
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Does Math Make You Anxious?
Greater anxiety towards mathematics is associated with lower scores in mathematics, both between and within countries. The better a student’s schoolmates perform in mathematics, the greater the student’s anxiety towards mathematics. Teachers’ use of formative assessment practices is...
  N° 47   01 Jan 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-has-student-performance-evolved-over-time_5js7q3kbkklt-en
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How has Student Performance Evolved Over Time?
Every three years, when PISA results are published, the world’s media focuses on countries’ rankings in mathematics, reading and science performance. Often, what is lost in the subsequent national-level soulsearching about how to improve student performance is the fact that many countries have...
  N° 46   01 Dec 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/does-homework-perpetuate-inequities-in-education_5jxrhqhtx2xt-en
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Does Homework Perpetuate Inequities in Education?
While most 15-year-old students spend part of their after-school time doing homework, the amount of time they spend on it shrank between 2003 and 2012. Socio-economically advantaged students and students who attend socio-economically advantaged schools tend to spend more time doing...
  N° 45   01 Nov 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/do-countries-with-high-mean-performance-in-pisa-maintain-their-lead-as-students-age_5jxszm0bzxnn-en
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Do Countries with High Mean Performance in PISA Maintain their Lead as Students Age?
Countries where 15-year-old students perform at high standards internationally tend to be the same countries where these young adults tend to perform well at the age of 26 to 28. School systems need to ensure that their students perform at a high level by the time they complete compulsory...
  N° 44   01 Oct 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-is-equity-in-resource-allocation-related-to-student-performance_5jxvl3zwbzwg-en
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How is Equity in Resource Allocation Related to Student Performance?
How educational resources are allocated is just as important as the amount of resources available. High-performing countries and economies tend to allocate resources more equitably across socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged schools. Among the countries with...
  N° 43   01 Sep 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/are-disadvantaged-students-more-likely-to-repeat-grades_5jxwwfp1ngr7-en
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Are Disadvantaged Students more Likely to Repeat Grades?
One in eight students across OECD countries has repeated a grade at least once before the age of 15. Many countries reduced the rate of grade repetition between 2003 and 2012. One in five disadvantaged 15-year-olds has repeated a grade. Even among students with similar academic...
  N° 42   01 Aug 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/when-is-competition-between-schools-beneficial_5jz0v4zzbcmv-en
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When is Competition Between Schools Beneficial?
In most school systems, over 50% of 15-year-olds students attend schools that compete with another school to attract students from the same residential area. Across countries and economies, performance is unrelated to whether or not schools have to compete for students. When choosing a...
  N° 41   01 July 2014 Click to Access: 
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Do 15-year-olds Know How to Manage Money?
On average across the 13 OECD countries and economies that participated in the PISA financial literacy assessment, 10% of students can analyse complex financial products and solve non-routine financial problems, while 15% can, at best, make simple decisions about everyday spending, and...
  N° 40   01 June 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/does-pre-primary-education-reach-those-who-need-it-most_5jz15974pzvg-en
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Does Pre-primary Education Reach Those Who Need it Most?
Attendance in pre-primary education is associated with better student performance later on. Fifteen-year-old students in 2012 were more likely than 15-year-olds in 2003 to have attended at least one year of pre-primary education. The gap in pre-primary attendance rates between...
  N° 39   01 May 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/are-grouping-and-selecting-students-for-different-schools-related-to-students-motivation-to-learn_5jz5hlpb6nxw-en
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Are Grouping and Selecting Students for Different Schools Related to Students' Motivation to Learn?
On average across OECD countries, students who are highly motivated to learn mathematics because they believe it will help them later on score better in mathematics – by the equivalent of half a year of schooling – than students who are not highly motivated. Students’ motivation to learn...
  N° 38   01 Apr 2014 Click to Access: 
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Are 15-Year-Olds Creative Problem-solvers?
To do well on PISA’s first assessment of creative problem-solving skills, students need to be open to novelty, tolerate doubt and uncertainty, and dare to use intuition to initiate a solution. Just because a student performs well in core school subjects doesn’t mean he or she is proficient...
  N° 37   01 Mar 2014 Click to Access: 
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Do Students Have the Drive to Succeed?
When students believe that investing effort in learning will make a difference, they score significantly higher in mathematics. The fact that large proportions of students in most countries consistently believe that student achievement is mainly a product of hard work, rather than inherited...
  N° 36   01 Feb 2014 Click to Access: 
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Do Parents' Occupations Have an Impact on Student Performance?
Students whose parents work in professional occupations generally outperform other students in mathematics, while students whose parents work in elementary occupations tend to underachieve compared to their peers. The strength of the relationship between parents’ occupations and...
  N° 35   01 Jan 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/who-are-the-school-truants_5jzb019jwmd5-en
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Who Are the School Truants?
Across OECD countries, 18% of students skipped classes at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA test, and 15% of students skipped a day of school or more over the same period. Few students in high-performing school systems skip classes or days of school. For students in OECD...
  N° 34   01 Nov 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/who-are-the-strong-performers-and-successful-reformers-in-education_5k3wb8k5vr7l-en
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Who Are the Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education?
Strong performers and successful reformers in education share some key characteristics: a belief in the potential of all their students, strong political will, and the capacity of all stakeholders to make sustained and concerted efforts towards improvement. Countries/Economies that have...
  N° 33   01 Nov 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-do-immigrant-students-tell-us-about-the-quality-of-education-systems_5k3wb8k80n7k-en
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What Do Immigrant Students Tell Us About the Quality of Education Systems?
Immigrant students who share a common country of origin, and therefore many cultural similarities, perform very differently across school systems. The difference in performance between immigrant students and non-immigrant students of similar socio-economic status is smaller in school systems...
  N° 32   01 Sep 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/do-students-perform-better-in-schools-with-orderly-classrooms_5k40d63gcd44-en
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Do Students Perform Better in Schools with Orderly Classrooms?
Most students enjoy orderly classrooms for their language-of-instruction lessons. Socio-economically disadvantaged students are less likely to enjoy orderly classrooms than advantaged students. Orderly classrooms – regardless of the school’s overall socio-economic profile – are related to...
  N° 31   01 Sep 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/who-are-the-academic-all-rounders_5k40hdhft3bx-en
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Who are the Academic All-rounders?
On average across OECD countries, around 4% of students are top performers in reading, mathematics and science (all-rounders). Australia, Finland, Hong Kong-China, Japan, New Zealand, Shanghai-China and Singapore have larger proportions of these students than any other country or economy.
  N° 30   01 June 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/could-learning-strategies-reduce-the-performance-gap-between-advantaged-and-disadvantaged-students_5k4220w36z25-en
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Could Learning Strategies Reduce the Performance Gap Between Advantaged and Disadvantaged Students?
Students who know how to summarise information tend to perform better in reading. If disadvantaged students used effective learning strategies to the same extent as students from more advantaged backgrounds do, the performance gap between the two groups would be almost 20% narrower.
  N° 29   01 May 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/do-immigrant-students-reading-skills-depend-on-how-long-they-have-been-in-their-new-country_5k44zcpqn5q4-en
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Do Immigrant Students' Reading Skills Depend on How Long they Have Been in their New Country?
In most OECD countries, newly arrived 15-year-old immigrant students show poorer reading performance than immigrant students who arrived in their new country when they were younger than five. Students who emigrated from less-developed countries where the home language differs from their new...
  N° 28   01 May 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-makes-urban-schools-different_5k46l8w342jc-en
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What Makes Urban Schools Different?
In most countries and economies, students who attend schools in urban areas tend to perform at higher levels than other students. Socio-economic status explains only part of the performance difference between students who attend urban schools and other students. Schools in urban settings are...
  N° 27   01 Apr 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/does-it-matter-which-school-a-student-attends_5k4818hwp89v-en
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Does it Matter Which School a Student Attends?
Successful education systems are able to guarantee that all students succeed at high levels. Across OECD countries, around 60% of the overall, country-level variation in student performance can be traced to differences in how well students who attend the same school can be expected to...
  N° 26   01 Mar 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/grade-expectations_5k49czl2s8bv-en
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Grade Expectations
Countries vary in the way they use marks, but they all tend to reward the mastery of skills and attitudes that promote learning. Teachers tend to give girls and socio-economically advantaged students better school marks, even if they don’t have better performance and attitudes than boys and...
  N° 25   01 Feb 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/are-countries-moving-towards-more-equitable-education-systems_5k4bwpbqrz9s-en
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Are Countries Moving Towards More Equitable Education Systems?
PISA results show that no country or economy has reached the goal of creating a completely equitable education system, but some are much closer than others. Some countries and economies have shown that improvements in equity can be achieved at the same time as improvements in overall...
  N° 24   01 Jan 2013 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-do-students-think-about-school_5k4c78mk3g6f-en
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What Do Students Think About School?
Most students think that what they learned in school is useful for them or their future. Students’ attitudes towards school are associated with their reading skills. Students who report that the climate at their school is conducive to learning tend to have more positive attitudes towards school.
  N° 23   01 Dec 2012 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-do-students-expect-to-do-after-finishing-upper-secondary-school_5k4c78mmxchb-en
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What Do Students Expect To Do After Finishing Upper Secondary School?
The percentage of students who expect to complete university is highest in Korea (80%) and lowest in Latvia (25%). Many high-performing students do not expect to go to university, representing potentially lost talent to an economy and society while many low-performing students think they will...
  N° 22   01 Nov 2012 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-do-immigrant-students-fare-in-disadvantaged-schools_5k8zpcj3qnxt-en
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How Do Immigrant Students Fare in Disadvantaged Schools?
Immigrant students often have to overcome multiple barriers at once in order to succeed at school. Across most OECD countries, poor performance among immigrant students relative to other students is strongly related to social disadvantage at school, as reflected in the proportion of students...
  N° 21   01 Oct 2012 Click to Access: 
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Do Today's 15-Year-Olds Feel Environmentally Responsible?
Most 15-year-olds in OECD countries have some understanding of environmental issues and feel that threats to the environment are a serious concern for them and/or for other people in their country. Scientific understanding of the environment is key if students are to have a...
  N° 20   01 Sep 2012 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/are-school-vouchers-associated-with-equity-in-education_5k91d4jp42s7-en
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Are School Vouchers Associated with Equity in Education?
Privately managed schools tend to attract more advantaged student populations; but the difference between the socio-economic profiles of public and private schools is narrowed when privately managed schools receive higher levels of public funding. The difference between the socio-economic...
  N° 19   01 Aug 2012 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/is-there-really-such-a-thing-as-a-second-chance-in-education_5k91d4jrld9q-en
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Is there really such a Thing as a "Second Chance" in Education?
While the reading proficiency of Canadian 15-year-olds closely predicts reading proficiency at age 24, young adults can shape their reading skills after the end of compulsory schooling. In the transition to young adulthood, reading skills generally improve – but more for some groups than for...
  N° 18   01 July 2012 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/are-students-more-engaged-when-schools-offer-extracurricular-activities_5k961l4ccczt-en
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Are Students More Engaged When Schools Offer Extracurricular Activities?
Science project. The very phrase is nearly synonymous with hands-on learning, learning-by-doing, collaboration. Are students more engaged and do they perform better in science if their school encourages them to work on science projects, participate in science fairs, belong to a science-related...
  N° 17   01 June 2012 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/are-large-cities-educational-assets-or-liabilities_5k962hdqjflr-en
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Are Large Cities Educational Assets or Liabilities?
Large cities are generally educational assets: in most countries, performance improves dramatically when only the scores of students in urban areas are considered, although this is not the case in some countries, such as Belgium, Slovenia, the United Kingdom and the United States. When...
  N° 16   01 May 2012 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/does-performance-based-pay-improve-teaching_5k98q27r2stb-en
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Does Performance-Based Pay Improve Teaching?
PISA has long established that high-performing education systems tend to pay their teachers more. They also often prioritise the quality of teaching over other choices, including class size. But in the current budgetary climate, paying everybody more may not be a viable alternative. So many...
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