The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) surveys collected data on students’ performances in reading, mathematics and science, as well as contextual information on students’ background, home characteristics and school factors which could influence performance. This publication includes detailed information on how to analyse the PISA data, enabling researchers to both reproduce the initial results and to undertake further analyses. In addition to the inclusion of the necessary techniques, the manual also includes a detailed account of the PISA 2006 database and worked examples providing full syntax in SPSS®.
- 31 Mar 2009
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National and international surveys usually collect data from a sample. Dealing with a sample rather than the whole population is preferable for several reasons.
First, for a census, all members of the population need to be identified. This identification process presents no major difficulty for human populations in some countries, where national databases with the name and address of all, or nearly all, citizens may be available. However, in other countries, it is not possible for the researcher to identify all members or sampling units of the target population, mainly because it would be too time-consuming or because of the nature of the target population.