1996-3777 (online)
1990-8539 (print)
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A series of reports on the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment’s (PISA) periodic testing program on student performance. The reports generally compare student (15 year olds) academic performance across countries, or discuss the methodology used to gather the data.

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PISA 2015 Results (Volume II)

PISA 2015 Results (Volume II)

Policies and Practices for Successful Schools You or your institution have access to this content

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06 Dec 2016
9789264267510 (PDF) ;9789264267497(print)

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The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) examines not just what students know in science, reading and mathematics, but what they can do with what they know. Results from PISA show educators and policy makers the quality and equity of learning outcomes achieved elsewhere, and allow them to learn from the policies and practices applied in other countries. PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools, is one of five volumes that present the results of the PISA 2015 survey, the sixth round of the triennial assessment. It examines how student performance is associated with various characteristics of individual schools and school systems, including the resources allocated to education, the learning environment and how school systems select students into different schools, programmes and classes.

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  • Foreword and acknowledgements

    Equipping citizens with the knowledge and skills necessary to achieve their full potential, contribute to an increasingly interconnected world, and ultimately convert better skills into better lives is a central preoccupation of policy makers around the world. Results from the OECD’s Survey of Adult Skills show that highly skilled adults are not only twice as likely to be employed and almost three times more likely to earn an above-median salary than poorly skilled adults, they are also more likely to volunteer, to report that they are in good to excellent health, to see themselves as actors rather than as objects of political processes, and to trust others. Fairness, integrity and inclusiveness in public policy thus all hinge on the skills of citizens.

  • Executive summary

    Many of the scientific principles and theories that 15-year-olds are familiar with were learned at school. As with any other subject, the way science is taught in school can influence not only whether students do well in science, but also whether they become interested enough in the subject to want to pursue it later on, in further education or in a career. Given the impact of science and technology on our daily lives, the expected growth in science-related employment worldwide, and students’ declining interest in science as they progress through school, it is important to examine why some students are better prepared for and more interested in science-related careers than others.

  • Reader's guide
  • What is PISA?

    “What is important for citizens to know and be able to do?” In response to that question and to the need for internationally comparable evidence on student performance, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) launched the triennial survey of 15-year-old students around the world known as the Programme for International Students Assessment, or PISA. PISA assesses the extent to which 15-year-old students, near the end of their compulsory education, have acquired key knowledge and skills that are essential for full participation in modern societies. The assessment focuses on the core school subjects of science, reading and mathematics. Students’ proficiency in an innovative domain is also assessed (in 2015, this domain is collaborative problem solving). The assessment does not just ascertain whether students can reproduce knowledge; it also examines how well students can extrapolate from what they have learned and can apply that knowledge in unfamiliar settings, both in and outside of school. This approach reflects the fact that modern economies reward individuals not for what they know, but for what they can do with what they know.

  • Overview: Policies and practices for successful schools
  • How schools and teaching practices shape students' performance in and dispositions towards science

    This chapter focuses on the opportunity to learn science at school, the school resources devoted to science, and how science is taught in schools. It discusses how these are related to student performance in science, students’ epistemic beliefs, and students’ expectations of pursuing a career in science. The opportunity to learn science includes the attendance at science courses and the choice of school science courses. The school resources examined include the quality and availability of science laboratories, the qualifications of the science teaching staff, and the availability of science-related extracurricular activities. The methods for teaching science discussed in the chapter include teacher-directed instruction, feedback, adaptive instruction and enquiry-based instruction.

  • The school learning environment

    This chapter describes the learning environment in different types of schools and examines how it is related to student performance. It covers student truancy, the disciplinary climate, and student and teacher behaviour that can influence the climate for learning at school. The chapter also discusses how the collaboration between teachers and parents is related to the climate in the classroom, and how school leaders can set the tone for learning at school.

  • School governance, assessment and accountability

    This chapter examines the governance of school systems, assessment practices and accountability procedures and how they are related to student performance across PISA-participating countries and economies. It examines school autonomy; teachers’ participation in school governance; public and private involvement in governance; school choice; policies on examinations, assessment practices and purposes; quality assurance; and the use of achievement data.

  • Selecting and grouping students

    This chapter discusses the ways in which students are selected and grouped into different grade levels, schools, programmes and classes within schools, based mainly on their performance – policies and practices known as vertical and horizontal stratification. The chapter offers an analysis of how different forms of stratification are used in combination and how they are associated with science performance in PISA 2015. It also examines how stratification policies and practices have changed since 2006.

  • Resources invested in education

    This chapter examines the resources invested in education in PISAparticipating countries and economies, how these resources have evolved over time, and how they are allocated across schools. The relationship between educational resources, including financial, material, human and time resources, and student performance is also analysed.

  • What PISA 2015 results imply for policy

    By reporting on the achievements of many education systems against a common set of benchmarks, PISA aims to encourage policy makers and practitioners to learn from the policies and practices of their peers around the world. This chapter examines how some of these policies and practices are associated with student outcomes, particularly those related to performance in and attitudes towards science.

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