OECD Reviews of School Resources

English
ISSN: 
2413-3841 (online)
ISSN: 
2413-4333 (print)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/24133841
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The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The OECD Reviews of School Resources explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as public funding of individual schools; human resources, such as teachers, school leaders and education administrators; physical resources, such as location, buildings and equipment; and other resources, such as learning time.This series offers timely policy advice to both governments and the education community. It includes both country reports and thematic studies.

 
OECD Reviews of School Resources: Uruguay 2016

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Author(s):
Paulo Santiago, Beatrice Ávalos, Tracey Burns, Alejandro Morduchowicz, Thomas Radinger
22 Nov 2016
Pages:
276
ISBN:
9789264266094 (EPUB) ; 9789264265530 (PDF) ;9789264265509(print)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264265530-en

Hide / Show Abstract

The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The OECD Reviews of School Resources explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.
The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as public funding of individual schools; human resources, such as teachers, school leaders and education administrators; physical resources, such as location, buildings and equipment; and other resources, such as learning time.
This series offers timely policy advice to both governments and the education community. It includes both country reports and thematic studies.

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  • Foreword

    This report for Uruguay forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools (also referred to as the School Resources Review, see for further details). The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way, including financial resources (e.g. expenditures on education, school budget), physical resources (e.g. school infrastructure, computers), human resources (e.g. teachers, school leaders) and other resources (e.g. learning time).

  • Acronyms and abbreviations
  • Executive summary

    Universal access has been reached in primary education. In addition, access to pre‐primary education is good for children aged 4 and 5, with coverage rates considerably above the average for the Latin America region. However, the completion rates of lower and upper secondary education remain unsatisfactory and have increased slowly over the past decades compared to other countries of the region. Uruguay has also very high repetition rates in regional and international comparison, leading to a high number of overage students. Furthermore, levels of student achievement in international assessments have decreased but remain above the regional average. A major concern is the significant proportion of students underperforming in secondary education.

  • Assessment and recommendations

    The education system in Uruguay has made good progress in pre-primary and basic education. Universal access has been reached in primary education. In addition, access to pre-primary education is good for children aged four and five, with coverage rates considerably above the average for the Latin America region. However, the completion rates of lower and upper secondary education remain unsatisfactory. The proportion of 15‐24 year-olds who have completed secondary school is one of the lowest in the region and has shown little improvement over the past decades compared to other countries of the region (29.7% in 2010 compared to 22.4% in 1990). Uruguay also has very high repetition rates in regional and international comparison, leading to a high number of overage students. Nevertheless, the repetition rate in public primary schools has decreased since 2002 and had almost halved by 2013. Also, student achievement in international assessments has decreased but remains above the regional average. A major concern is the significant proportion of students underperforming in secondary education. In PISA 2012, 55.8% of students demonstrated low levels of mathematics proficiency compared to 23.0% on average in the OECD.

  • School education in Uruguay

    The Uruguayan education system is highly centralised, both in terms of distribution of responsibilities across levels of governance and in terms of space and geography. Almost all of the decisions about administrative and pedagogical aspects are taken at the central level. In contrast to OECD countries, the main responsibility for formulating and implementing policies in school education does not lie with the Ministry of Education and Culture but rather with the autonomous National Public Education Administration (ANEP). In addition, pre-tertiary education is co-administered with teachers as they elect representatives to the governing bodies of ANEP. The large majority of children attend public education. Curricula are defined at the central level. The level of educational attainment in Uruguay remains modest and has increased slowly over the past decades. Universal access has been reached in primary education while access to pre-primary has expanded considerably. However, completion rates in lower and upper secondary education remain unsatisfactory while repetition rates are very high in international comparison. Levels of student achievement have decreased in recent years but remain above the regional average. Finally, students’ and schools’ socio-economic status have a strong impact on student performance.

  • Governance of school resource use in Uruguay

    This chapter is about the governance of schooling, including the distribution of responsibilities, the supply of school services and the organisation of the school network. It places particular emphasis on areas of priority for Uruguay such as the structure of education governance, strategic planning and equity within the school system. It also reviews areas in which demand for education services is likely not to be met and identifies a number of sources of inefficiency in school resource use. The chapter further highlights the importance of implementation aspects of education policy and the need to increase trust in education through effective change in educational policy.

  • Funding of school education in Uruguay

    This chapter is about the funding of school education. It deals with the level of resources available for school education and revenue sources. Furthermore, it discusses budget planning, the monitoring of funds’ use as well as incentives for the effective use of school funding. The chapter places particular emphasis on areas of priority for Uruguay such as the low levels of public expenditure on education, the little transparency of mechanisms to fund individual schools, equity implications of funding approaches, and the limited autonomy of individual schools to manage resources. The chapter also reviews the limitations of funds’ use accountability and the concerns regarding the funding for school infrastructure.

  • School organisation and operation in Uruguay

    This chapter analyses how school organisation and operation in Uruguay can contribute to the effective use of resources at the school level. It deals with the distribution of responsibilities for school organisation and operation and analyses school quality assurance and development. Furthermore, it discusses the approach to school leadership, the organisation of learning within schools and how school facilities and materials are used to support learning. The chapter places particular emphasis on areas of priority for Uruguay such as the narrow emphasis of school inspection on supporting school development and the limited recognition of the important role that school leadership can play for teaching and learning. The chapter also reviews the role of learning support staff, schools’ autonomy over pedagogical processes and the use of resources, school-level strategies to address learning difficulties and the contribution of the school community to schools’ activities.

  • The teaching workforce in Uruguay

    This chapter is about policies to improve the effectiveness of the teaching workforce. It deals with teacher preparation, recruitment, career development and use of time. Furthermore, it discusses how teachers are incentivised to perform at a high level. The chapter places particular emphasis on areas of priority for Uruguay such as the unavailability of a competency framework for the teaching profession, the inequitable distribution of teachers across schools, the shortcomings in initial teacher education and the concerns over teacher quality. The chapter also reviews approaches to the selection of teachers and their deployment to schools, the structure of teacher compensation, teacher appraisal processes and the organisation of professional development.

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    • The OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools

      The OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools (also referred to as the School Resources Review) is designed to respond to the strong interest in the effective use of school resources evident at national and international levels. It provides analysis and policy advice on how to distribute, utilise and manage resources so that they contribute to achieving effectiveness and efficiency objectives in education. School resources are understood in a broad way, including financial resources (e.g. expenditures on education, school budget), physical resources (e.g. school buildings, computers), human resources (e.g. teachers, school leaders) and other resources (e.g. learning time).

    • Composition of the review team

      Beatrice Ávalos, a Chilean national, holds a Ph.D. from St. Louis University, USA and is an associate researcher at the Centre for Advanced Research in Education, University of Chile, where she leads a research group on teacher related topics. She was awarded the 2013 National Prize in Educational Sciences by the Chilean government. Between 2007 and 2010 she co-ordinated the Chilean application of the IEA TEDS-M study at the Ministry of Education. Formerly, she was Senior Lecturer at University of Wales, Cardiff and Professor of Education at the University of Papua New Guinea, and more recently has participated in the Latin American UNESCO review of teacher policies. She has carried out consultancy work for several international organisations including The World Bank, UNESCO/OREALC, the Academy for Educational Development as well as on request of countries in Uruguay and Bolivia. She has published extensively on themes related to teachers, teacher education, policy and educational development both in Spanish and English. She has also contributed with articles to several International Handbooks on Leadership, Educational Change, School Improvement, Continuing Professional Development of Teachers and the International Handbook of Teacher Education.

    • Visit programme

      Tuesday, 17 March 2015, Montevideo

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