04 Mar 2010
1-1 in Education
Over the last decade, more and more public and private stakeholders, in developed and developing countries, have been supporting 1:1 initiatives in education (i.e. every child receives her/his own personal computing device). These 1:1 initiatives represent a qualitative move forward from...
18 Dec 2009
21st Century Skills and Competences for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries
This paper discusses issues related to the teaching and assessment of 21st century skills and competencies in OECD countries drawing on the findings of a questionnaire study and other relevant background material such as white papers or curriculum documents. Although all OECD countries were...
18 Oct 2008
A Framework for Monitoring Transition Systems
With its publication of the Thematic Review on the Transition from Initial Education to Working Life in
2000, OECD has laid the foundation for the development of indicators regarding the transition from
education to work. One of the core activities of OECD’s Network B in 2005 and 2006 was to...
08 Feb 2012
A Literature Review of School Practices to Overcome School Failure
This working paper was prepared as part of the OECD thematic review Overcoming School Failure: Policies
that Work, www.oecd.org/edu/equity. The project provides evidence on the policies that are effective to reduce
school failure by improving low attainment and reducing dropout, and proactively...
21 Feb 2011
A Tuning-AHELO Conceptual Framework of Expected Desired/Learning Outcomes in Engineering
The OECD Secretariat, at the invitation of the AHELO Group of National Experts, contracted the
Tuning Association to undertake initial development work on learning outcomes to be used for valid and
reliable assessments of students from diverse institutions and countries. The two disciplines...
06 Feb 2012
Access to Education Over the Working Life in Sweden
To facilitate individuals to adjust their skills to changes in market demands, Sweden has a relatively
generous policy to stimulate formal adult education at the compulsory, upper secondary and tertiary levels.
This paper provides an overview of what research has reported to assess if and/or...
27 Mar 2012
Ageing and Skills
The relationship between ageing and skills is becoming an important policy issue, not least in the context of population ageing. Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) will potentially add considerably to the understanding of the relationship...
02 Dec 2011
Alignment in Complex Education Systems
The majority of OECD countries now implement one form or another of standards-based assessment and evaluation. The core logic of standards-based systems rests upon the alignment of three key elements: standards defining the knowledge and skills – or competences – students are expected to have...
17 Oct 2011
An Analysis of Skill Mismatch Using Direct Measures of Skills
The focus of this study is on the potential causes of skill mismatch, the extent of skill mismatch, the sociodemographic make-up of skill mismatch, and the consequences of skill mismatch in terms of earnings as well as employer sponsored adult education/training. A distinction is made between...
31 Mar 2010
Analysis of PISA 2006 Preferred Items Ranking Using the Percent-Correct Method
This paper uses an approximate average percent-correct methodology to compare the ranks that would
be obtained for PISA 2006 countries if the rankings had been derived from items judged by each country to
be of highest priority for inclusion. The results reported show a remarkable consistency...
10 May 2013
Analysis of the Predictive Power of PISA Test Items
The predictive power of the PISA test items for future student success is examined based on data from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) for the PISA 2003 cohort. This working paper analyses how students’ responses to mathematics and problem-solving items in PISA 2003 are...
16 July 2009
Assessment and Innovation in Education
Do some forms of student (and school) assessment hinder the introduction of innovative educational practices and the development of innovation skills in education systems? This report focuses on the impact of high-stake summative assessment on innovation and argues that it is possible to...
04 Sep 2012
Assessment for Qualification and Certification in Upper Secondary Education
Within the policy field of student assessment, the assessment of students for qualification and certification in upper secondary education has special importance since key decisions for the progression of students may be taken on the basis of assessment results. Students in most OECD countries...
29 Feb 2008
Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Higher Education
Higher education institutions (HEIs) have experienced increasing pressures to provide accountability
data and consumer information on the quality of teaching and learning. But existing ratings and rankings of
HEIs tend to neglect information on student learning outcomes. Instead, they focus on...
17 Aug 2012
Bringing About Curriculum Innovations
Different implicit approaches to promoting innovation in education can be explored through the decision making of curriculum – reflecting what is taught to students and how the students are taught. Are innovations in curriculum expected to derive from centrally driven processes? Or has much...
03 Oct 2012
Business-Driven Innovation: Is it Making a Difference in Education?
This paper analyses business-driven innovation in education by looking at education-related patents. It
first draws a picture of the challenges for innovation in the formal education sector, which suffers from a
poor knowledge ecology: science is hardly linked to core teaching and...
22 Apr 2010
Comparing the Similarities and Differences of PISA 2003 and TIMSS
This paper makes an in-depth comparison of the PISA (OECD) and TIMSS (IEA) mathematics
assessments conducted in 2003. First, a comparison of survey methodologies is presented, followed by an
examination of the mathematics frameworks in the two studies. The methodologies and the frameworks...
04 Aug 2009
Do Quasi-markets Foster Innovation in Education?
This report seeks to address critical issues such as these by synthesising the evidence on innovations
in more market-driven education systems. The analysis draws on data from over 20 OECD and non-OECD
countries, including both developed nations that seek to move beyond established systems of...
10 Feb 2010
Does Reading Proficiency at Age 15 Affect Pathways through Learning and Work
Over the last decade, Canada has experienced a substantial increase in the number of individuals participating in post-secondary education (PSE). This trend emphasizes the importance of understanding the pathways leading to PSE enrolment and the competencies that are associated with them. This...
23 Nov 2007
Education and Civic Engagement
What difference does education make for young adults' engagement in politics and social issues? This
study is part of the OECD's Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) project on
"Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning" (SOL). It discusses relevant international research,...
10 Dec 2009
Education and Obesity in Four OECD Countries
An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years.
Existing evidence provides strong suggestions that such epidemic has affected certain social groups more
than others. In particular, education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of...
01 July 2010
Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Young Adults in Britain
In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine
whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British
Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week’s birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of...
14 Sep 2007
Effects of Tertiary Expansion
This paper examines crowding-out effects and the labour market match for the tertiary educated in
26 OECD countries, using attainment data and data on labour market outcomes from Education at a
Glance 2006. A first-difference approach is applied on a three-period, pooled country-panel to...
19 Jan 2009
Employers' Perspectives on the Roles of Human Capital Development and Management in Creating Value
Human capital – the productive capacity that is embedded in people – is one of the most important contributors to the growth in nations’ output and standard of living. Globalisation and technological change have increased the importance of human capital in recent years, to the point that there...
08 Feb 2012
Exploring the Complex Interaction Between Governance and Knowledge in Education
Governments in all OECD countries are facing the challenge of governing increasingly complex
education systems. There is a growing need for governance structures that can handle this complexity and
which can provide actors with the knowledge they need to make decisions. This working paper asks...
26 Sep 2008
Final Report of the Development of an International Adult Learning Module (OECD AL Module)
Policy interest in international surveys on Adult Learning (AL) has increased strongly. AL survey data are used as benchmarks for a country‘s educational system. However, results of key indicators like participation in learning activities often vary remarkably between different data sources....
20 Mar 2007
Funding Systems and their Effects on Higher Education Systems
This international study focuses on the funding systems in the area of higher education in the
following countries: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Norway, Portugal and
Slovak Republic. Each individual country study was designed and conducted within an overall...
17 Feb 2011
Gendered Career Expectations of Students
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of adolescent career plans reported in PISA 2006. Its
main focus is on the differences in the status and area of employment expected by girls and boys in high
school. In almost all countries, girls lead boys in their interest in non-manual, high...
06 July 2007
Globalisation and Higher Education
Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education
was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which
never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher...
02 Mar 2012
Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education
The Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-border Higher Education were developed and adopted to support
and encourage international cooperation and enhance the understanding of the importance of quality provision
in cross-border higher education. The purposes of the Guidelines are to...
10 Feb 2010
How Does Academic Ability Affect Educational and Labour Market Pathways in Canada
Using data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), this paper provides an up-to-date description
of educational and labour market pathways (or transitions) among Canadian youth. It also estimates the
effect of academic abilities, measured by PISA math and reading scores, on such...
05 Mar 2010
How Technology Changes Demands for Human Skills
This paper places the competencies to be measured by the OECD’s Programme for the International
Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) in the context of the technological developments which are
reshaping the nature of the workplace and work in the 21st century. The largest technological...
26 June 2012
Hybrid Learning Environments
This paper deals with the problematic nature of the transition between education and the workplace. A
smooth transition between education and the workplace requires learners to develop an integrated
knowledge base, but this is problematic as most educational programmes offer knowledge and...
20 Sep 2011
ICT and Initial Teacher Education
This working paper aims to give an overview of the national policies that exist in the field of ICT and initial teacher education. Information on this topic was initially gathered via a survey, in the form of a country questionnaire, which was conducted as part of the analytical strand of the...
20 Nov 2009
ICT in Initial Teacher Training: Research Review
This research review reports on articles presenting empirical research in the area of how teacher-training institutions work on preparing future teachers for the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) in their future classrooms. It was conducted mainly in English and...
02 May 2012
Immigrant Children's Age at Arrival and Assessment Results
While a number of single-country studies have been done to explore whether or not there is a "critical
age" at which the arrival in a new country becomes a steep disadvantage to the immigrant student, this
study aims to determine whether the steepness of the age-at-arrival/test score profile...
11 May 2012
Immigrant Status and Secondary School Performance as Determinants of Post-Secondary Participation
This working paper seeks to explore the reasons why educational attainment in the immigrant population varies between North America and Europe. Specifically, the examples of Canada and Switzerland are used as Canada has an immigrant population with a typically higher rate of post-secondary...
10 Feb 2010
Impact of Proficiency on Early Entrants to the Labour Market
The primary purpose of the report is to explore the impact of PISA reading scores on the early labour market outcomes of young Canadians of the Youth in Transition Survey. This inquiry is complicated by two facts. First, family and school characteristics that are positively correlated with PISA...
01 July 2010
Initial Teacher Education and Continuing Training Policies in a Comparative Perspective
To design policies that allow to educate and train teachers, capable of helping students to acquire the competencies needed to evolve in today‘s societies and labour markets is an amazing challenge. In today‘s context, with the undergoing economic and social changes, high-quality schooling is...
14 June 2012
Innovative Research-Based Approaches to Learning and Teaching
Building on an earlier 2008 summary prepared for OECD by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter,
this paper by Gesa S. E. van den Broek provides a more extensive discussion of approaches described as
"research based innovation." Fostering Communities of Learning is a constructivist approach in...
08 Apr 2011
Integrating Formative and Summative Assessment
A long-held ambition for many educators and assessment experts has been to integrate summative and formative assessments so that data from external assessments used for system monitoring may also be used to shape teaching and learning in classrooms. In turn, classroom-based assessments may...
02 Sep 2009
International Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Surveys in the OECD Region
Both within and beyond the OECD region, governments and other stakeholders are increasingly interested
in the assessments of the skills of their adult populations in order to monitor how well prepared they are for
the challenges of the knowledge based society. The current paper provides an...
01 Apr 2010
International Approaches to Teacher Selection and Recruitment
This report presents the findings of our review of the evidence base on comparative practices of teacher selection and recruitment, specifically on the different mechanisms countries use to assess teacher readiness to take up teaching posts, with particular emphasis on testing or examinations.1...
15 July 2008
Job-Related Training and Benefits for Individuals
This paper reviews the literature on job-related training and the effects of these investments for different
groups of individuals. The paper also elaborates on the theories, empirical explanations, and policy
implications that can be drawn from these findings. Employer-provided training is by...
04 Nov 2013
Learning Study is a collaborative, action-research approach to improve the effectiveness of
student learning by enhancing the professional competence of teachers. This is achieved through the
collaborative construction of the pedagogical content knowledge enabling them better to teach...
27 Mar 2013
Learning from International Experiences with Interactive Whiteboards
This paper describes teacher strategies and experiences with interactive whiteboards (IWBs) and draws on the
published research in this area to understand how a systemic approach to technology-based innovations in
schools can contribute to quality education for all. It explores ways to support...
10 Oct 2012
Looking Beyond the Numbers: Stakeholders and Multiple School Accountability
How to hold autonomous schools and school governing boards accountable for their decisions and
performance has become a particularly pressing question for central governments in many OECD
countries. Increasing complexity in education systems has led to a greater degree of freedom in...
21 Oct 2010
Markets in Education
In the last three decennia, many governments have introduced market mechanisms in education. They
have done so by enhancing parental choice and encouraging school competition, through policies like
abolishing catchment areas, creating voucher programmes and setting up charter schools. These...
16 Dec 2005
Measuring Educational Productivity in Standards-Based Accountability Systems
For many years the school system in the United States has measured success by the number of dollars spent, computers and textbooks purchased, and programs created. Moreover, the measures of success have not focused on academic achievement. Since 1965, American taxpayers have spent more than...
19 Feb 2013
Monitoring Adult Learning Policies
The main task of the Working Group on Adult Learning of the INES Labour Market, Economic and Social Outcomes network is the development of indicators on Adult Learning for publication in the annual volume "Education at a Glance" of the OECD. As part of this task, a list of 18 policy...