03 Dec 2013
Many international comparisons of education over the past 50 years have included some measure of students’ opportunity to learn (OTL) in their schooling. Results have typically confirmed the common sense notion that a student’s exposure in school to the assessed concepts, operationalized in...
04 Nov 2013
Learning Study is a collaborative, action-research approach to improve the effectiveness of
student learning by enhancing the professional competence of teachers. This is achieved through the
collaborative construction of the pedagogical content knowledge enabling them better to teach...
20 Aug 2013
PISA in Low and Middle Income Countries
This paper explores the participation of low- and middle-income countries in OECD’s Programme for
International Student Assessment (PISA). It provides a detailed description of partner countries’
participation across PISA rounds and the challenges faced by low- and middle-income partner...
14 May 2013
Understanding School Building Policy and Practice in Belgium's Flemish Community
This paper describes a conceptual framework that can be used to interpret the general policy issues
driving the design, construction, maintenance and evaluation of school buildings in Belgium’s Flemish
Community. Within the context of this framework, eight policy challenges relating to the...
17 Apr 2013
Sparking Innovation in STEM Education with Technology and Collaboration
This report highlights innovative technology-supported pedagogic models in science, technology, engineering
and mathematics (STEM) education, explores what to expect from collaboration in a designed network, and,
thereafter, sketches lessons for promoting educational innovation through...
29 Mar 2013
Review of the Italian Strategy for Digital Schools
The Italian Ministry of Education launched in 2007 a National Plan for Digital Schools (Piano
Nazionale Scuola Digitale) to mainstream Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Italian
classrooms and use technology as a catalyser of innovation in Italian education, hopefully conducing...
27 Mar 2013
Learning from International Experiences with Interactive Whiteboards
This paper describes teacher strategies and experiences with interactive whiteboards (IWBs) and draws on the
published research in this area to understand how a systemic approach to technology-based innovations in
schools can contribute to quality education for all. It explores ways to support...
19 Feb 2013
Monitoring Adult Learning Policies
The main task of the Working Group on Adult Learning of the INES Labour Market, Economic and Social Outcomes network is the development of indicators on Adult Learning for publication in the annual volume "Education at a Glance" of the OECD. As part of this task, a list of 18 policy...
10 May 2013
Analysis of the Predictive Power of PISA Test Items
The predictive power of the PISA test items for future student success is examined based on data from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) for the PISA 2003 cohort. This working paper analyses how students’ responses to mathematics and problem-solving items in PISA 2003 are...
10 Jan 2013
Progression in Student Creativity in School
Creativity is widely accepted as being an important outcome of schooling. Yet there are many
different views about what it is, how best it can be cultivated in young people and whether or how it should
be assessed. And in many national curricula creativity is only implicitly acknowledged and...
10 Oct 2012
Looking Beyond the Numbers: Stakeholders and Multiple School Accountability
How to hold autonomous schools and school governing boards accountable for their decisions and
performance has become a particularly pressing question for central governments in many OECD
countries. Increasing complexity in education systems has led to a greater degree of freedom in...
03 Oct 2012
Business-Driven Innovation: Is it Making a Difference in Education?
This paper analyses business-driven innovation in education by looking at education-related patents. It
first draws a picture of the challenges for innovation in the formal education sector, which suffers from a
poor knowledge ecology: science is hardly linked to core teaching and...
04 Sep 2012
Assessment for Qualification and Certification in Upper Secondary Education
Within the policy field of student assessment, the assessment of students for qualification and certification in upper secondary education has special importance since key decisions for the progression of students may be taken on the basis of assessment results. Students in most OECD countries...
17 Aug 2012
Bringing About Curriculum Innovations
Different implicit approaches to promoting innovation in education can be explored through the decision making of curriculum – reflecting what is taught to students and how the students are taught. Are innovations in curriculum expected to derive from centrally driven processes? Or has much...
26 June 2012
Hybrid Learning Environments
This paper deals with the problematic nature of the transition between education and the workplace. A
smooth transition between education and the workplace requires learners to develop an integrated
knowledge base, but this is problematic as most educational programmes offer knowledge and...
20 June 2012
Subsidies and Levies as Policy Instruments to Encourage Employer-Provided Training
This paper provides an overview of the available information concerning selected policy instruments
intended to promote employer-provided training, including the stated rationale and objectives, the target
groups and operational design as well as a at a summary of the evaluative evidence...
14 June 2012
Innovative Research-Based Approaches to Learning and Teaching
Building on an earlier 2008 summary prepared for OECD by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter,
this paper by Gesa S. E. van den Broek provides a more extensive discussion of approaches described as
"research based innovation." Fostering Communities of Learning is a constructivist approach in...
12 June 2012
Statistical Matching of PISA 2009 and TALIS 2008 Data in Iceland
The OECD Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) constitute two of the largest ongoing international student and teacher surveys presently underway. Data generated from these surveys offer researchers and policy-makers...
11 May 2012
Immigrant Status and Secondary School Performance as Determinants of Post-Secondary Participation
This working paper seeks to explore the reasons why educational attainment in the immigrant population varies between North America and Europe. Specifically, the examples of Canada and Switzerland are used as Canada has an immigrant population with a typically higher rate of post-secondary...
25 June 2012
Open Educational Resources
OECD’s Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) has worked on Open Educational Resources (OER) in the past, which led to the publication Giving Knowledge for Free – the Emergence of Open Educational Resources (2007). This working paper thus builds on exploratory and forward-looking...
02 May 2012
Immigrant Children's Age at Arrival and Assessment Results
While a number of single-country studies have been done to explore whether or not there is a "critical
age" at which the arrival in a new country becomes a steep disadvantage to the immigrant student, this
study aims to determine whether the steepness of the age-at-arrival/test score profile...
03 May 2012
School Funding Formulas
This study provides a literature review on school funding formulas across OECD countries. It looks at three salient questions from a comparative perspective: i) What kind of school formula funding schemes exist and how are they used, particularly for promoting the needs of socially...
07 May 2012
Parental Involvement in Selected PISA Countries and Economies
Studies have highlighted the beneficial effects of parental involvement in children’s educational lives. Few studies, however, analyse parental involvement in a cross-national perspective and few evaluate a wide array of forms of involvement. In 2009, 14 countries and economies implemented the...
27 Mar 2012
Ageing and Skills
The relationship between ageing and skills is becoming an important policy issue, not least in the context of population ageing. Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) will potentially add considerably to the understanding of the relationship...
22 Feb 2012
The Policy Impact of PISA
Little research has been done into how the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) affect national educational reform and policy-making. This paper examines the normative impact of PISA by investigating how, and the extent to which , national policy actors use PISA...
02 Mar 2012
Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education
The Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-border Higher Education were developed and adopted to support
and encourage international cooperation and enhance the understanding of the importance of quality provision
in cross-border higher education. The purposes of the Guidelines are to...
14 Feb 2012
Technical Feasibility of Reporting YITS 2010 Skill Assessment Results on the PISA 2000 Reading Scale
This study examines the feasibility of reporting scores of a test based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 instrument that was administered to a sample of 25-year-old Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) respondents on the PISA scale. Each of these respondents also...
08 Feb 2012
A Literature Review of School Practices to Overcome School Failure
This working paper was prepared as part of the OECD thematic review Overcoming School Failure: Policies
that Work, www.oecd.org/edu/equity. The project provides evidence on the policies that are effective to reduce
school failure by improving low attainment and reducing dropout, and proactively...
08 Feb 2012
Exploring the Complex Interaction Between Governance and Knowledge in Education
Governments in all OECD countries are facing the challenge of governing increasingly complex
education systems. There is a growing need for governance structures that can handle this complexity and
which can provide actors with the knowledge they need to make decisions. This working paper asks...
31 Jan 2012
School Choice and Equity
This report discusses the most relevant issues concerning school choice schemes, and how they intertwine with equity considerations, through a literature review and analysis of the effects different types of school choice programmes have on equity. In the last 25 years, more than two-thirds of...
11 Oct 2011
Student Standardised Testing
This report discusses the most relevant issues concerning student standardised testing in which there are no-stakes for students ("standardised testing") through a literature review and a review of the trends in standardised testing in OECD countries. Unlike standardised tests in which there...
02 Dec 2011
Alignment in Complex Education Systems
The majority of OECD countries now implement one form or another of standards-based assessment and evaluation. The core logic of standards-based systems rests upon the alignment of three key elements: standards defining the knowledge and skills – or competences – students are expected to have...
17 Oct 2011
An Analysis of Skill Mismatch Using Direct Measures of Skills
The focus of this study is on the potential causes of skill mismatch, the extent of skill mismatch, the sociodemographic make-up of skill mismatch, and the consequences of skill mismatch in terms of earnings as well as employer sponsored adult education/training. A distinction is made between...
06 Feb 2012
Access to Education Over the Working Life in Sweden
To facilitate individuals to adjust their skills to changes in market demands, Sweden has a relatively
generous policy to stimulate formal adult education at the compulsory, upper secondary and tertiary levels.
This paper provides an overview of what research has reported to assess if and/or...
20 Sep 2011
ICT and Initial Teacher Education
This working paper aims to give an overview of the national policies that exist in the field of ICT and initial teacher education. Information on this topic was initially gathered via a survey, in the form of a country questionnaire, which was conducted as part of the analytical strand of the...
21 Feb 2011
A Tuning-AHELO Conceptual Framework of Expected Desired/Learning Outcomes in Engineering
The OECD Secretariat, at the invitation of the AHELO Group of National Experts, contracted the
Tuning Association to undertake initial development work on learning outcomes to be used for valid and
reliable assessments of students from diverse institutions and countries. The two disciplines...
21 Feb 2011
Tuning-AHELO Conceptual Framework of Expected and Desired Learning Outcomes in Economics
The OECD Secretariat, at the invitation of the AHELO Group of National Experts, contracted the Tuning Association to undertake initial development work on learning outcomes to be used for valid and reliable assessments of students from diverse institutions and countries. The two disciplines...
08 Apr 2011
Integrating Formative and Summative Assessment
A long-held ambition for many educators and assessment experts has been to integrate summative and formative assessments so that data from external assessments used for system monitoring may also be used to shape teaching and learning in classrooms. In turn, classroom-based assessments may...
17 Feb 2011
Gendered Career Expectations of Students
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of adolescent career plans reported in PISA 2006. Its
main focus is on the differences in the status and area of employment expected by girls and boys in high
school. In almost all countries, girls lead boys in their interest in non-manual, high...
01 Feb 2011
OECD Educationtoday Crisis Survey 2010
The second OECD educationtoday Crisis Survey was carried out in 2010. Twenty-five OECD member countries completed the questionnaire. The results of the survey relies largely on the informed opinion of education officials regarding various aspects of the impact of the economic recession and...
07 Jan 2011
Workforce Skills and Innovation
This paper provides an account of the main approaches, debates and evidence in the literature on the role of workforce skills in the innovation process in developed economies. It draws on multiple sources including the innovation studies discipline, neoclassical Human Capital theory,...
22 Nov 2010
Using Student Test Results for Accountability and Improvement
This report discusses the most relevant issues concerning using student test results in OECD
countries. Initially the report provides an overview of how student test results are reported in OECD
countries and how stakeholders in these countries use and perceive of the results. The report then...
09 Nov 2010
Taking on the Completion Challenge
This paper reviews international research in the field of dropout from upper secondary education and training in OECD countries in order to present possible solutions to policymakers faced with the completion challenge. The paper begins by presenting existing definitions of dropout and upper...
21 Oct 2010
Markets in Education
In the last three decennia, many governments have introduced market mechanisms in education. They
have done so by enhancing parental choice and encouraging school competition, through policies like
abolishing catchment areas, creating voucher programmes and setting up charter schools. These...
01 July 2010
Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Young Adults in Britain
In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine
whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British
Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week’s birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of...
09 June 2011
The Impact of the 1999 Education Reform in Poland
Increasing the share of vocational secondary schooling has been a mainstay of development policy for
decades, especially in formerly socialist countries. However, the transition to market economies led to
significant restructuring of school systems and a decline in the number of vocational...
01 July 2010
Initial Teacher Education and Continuing Training Policies in a Comparative Perspective
To design policies that allow to educate and train teachers, capable of helping students to acquire the competencies needed to evolve in today‘s societies and labour markets is an amazing challenge. In today‘s context, with the undergoing economic and social changes, high-quality schooling is...
01 Apr 2010
International Approaches to Teacher Selection and Recruitment
This report presents the findings of our review of the evidence base on comparative practices of teacher selection and recruitment, specifically on the different mechanisms countries use to assess teacher readiness to take up teaching posts, with particular emphasis on testing or examinations.1...
31 Mar 2010
Analysis of PISA 2006 Preferred Items Ranking Using the Percent-Correct Method
This paper uses an approximate average percent-correct methodology to compare the ranks that would
be obtained for PISA 2006 countries if the rankings had been derived from items judged by each country to
be of highest priority for inclusion. The results reported show a remarkable consistency...
05 Mar 2010
How Technology Changes Demands for Human Skills
This paper places the competencies to be measured by the OECD’s Programme for the International
Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) in the context of the technological developments which are
reshaping the nature of the workplace and work in the 21st century. The largest technological...