PISA

English
ISSN: 
1996-3777 (online)
ISSN: 
1990-8539 (print)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/19963777
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A series of reports on the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment’s (PISA) periodic testing program on student performance. The reports generally compare student (15 year olds) academic performance across countries, or discuss the methodology used to gather the data.

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Making Education Count for Development

Making Education Count for Development

Data Collection and Availability in Six PISA for Development Countries You or your institution have access to this content

English
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Author(s):
UNESCO Institute for Statistics
28 Sep 2016
Pages:
140
ISBN:
9789264255449 (PDF) ;9789264255432(print)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264255449-en

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This report reviews the collection, availability and quality of system-level data and metadata on education from countries participating in the PISA for Development project: Cambodia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Senegal and Zambia. PISA for Development aims to increase low income countries’ use of PISA assessments for monitoring progress towards national goals for improving education and for analysing the factors associated with student learning outcomes, particularly among poor and marginalised populations. The project also helps track progress towards the international education targets defined in the Education 2030 Framework for Action, which the international community adopted in 2015 as the strategy for achieving the Education Sustainable Development Goal (SDG).

The report suggests technically sound and viable options for improving data quality, completeness and international comparability in the six countries that are reviewed. It also provides insights into overcoming some of the challenges common to countries that participate in PISA for Development and to other middle income and low income countries.

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  • Foreword and acknowledgements

    Since its launch in 2000, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has become a rigorous and comprehensive international assessment of student learning outcomes, serving as a premier yardstick for evaluating the quality, equity and efficiency of school systems. Every three years PISA tests the knowledge and skills of 15-year-old students in three main subject areas of reading, mathematics and science but increasingly also cross-curricular skills, such as problem-solving and teamwork. Students representing more than 70 countries and economies that together make up over 80% of the world economy have participated in the assessment since its launch, including 44 middle-income countries, 27 of which are recipients of foreign aid.

  • Abbreviations and acronyms
  • Executive summary

    This report assesses the current state of data collection and availability, in terms of quality and completeness, at the level of the national education system in six countries that are participating in the Programme for International Student Assessment for Development (PISA-D): Cambodia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Senegal and Zambia.

  • Overview: Lessons for collecting international education data for PISA for Development

    This chapter summarises the main findings of the review of the current status of data collection and availability, at national education system level, in six PISA for Development (PISA-D) participating countries. The main findings indicate that: 1) participating countries are generally in a satisfactory condition, though uneven, for completing the PISA-D system-level questionnaire, and 2) they face cross-cutting challenges that are common to most countries, and which can be extrapolated to other middle-income and low-income countries. The chapter highlights data collection challenges, such as remodelling a country’s data infrastructure to make sure that data is available in a single hub; and it identifies lessons learnt through the review, such as the need to consider modifications of the system-level questionnaire to avoid soliciting data and metadata that are already available at the international level.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Education data collection and availability in Cambodia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Senegal and Zambia

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    • Making the PISA for Development system-level questionnaire easier to use

      This chapter describes the contextual variables of a country’s education system that PISA uses to analyse and interpret the results of the student assessment. These variables are collected through a system-level questionnaire, and the chapter explains how the questionnaire has been adapted for use by PISA for Development (PISA-D) countries. It goes on to describe the nine worksheets of the questionnaire and the variables collected, and it presents suggestions on methodological issues and improving the data collection in each worksheet. The chapter concludes with the finding that most of the variables included in the system-level questionnaire have partial or total concordance with data that are included in current UIS data collection. Hence, to avoid duplicating efforts by PISA-D countries, parts of the questionnaire could be modified to avoid burdening countries with soliciting data that are already available at the international level.

    • Methodology and tools for international education surveys

      This chapter describes the methodology and tools used for international education surveys. The UIS developed an assessment tool better suited to the PISA for Development (PISA-D) context than the two frameworks generally used for the evaluation of countries’ education management information systems: the System approach for Better Education Results Education Management Information System (SABER-EMIS) and the Data Quality Assessment Framework (DQAF). The modified tool draws from the SABER and DQAF evaluation and scorings systems, but is adapted to metadata and aggregated data when necessary. The tool includes a concise rubric that evaluates 1) the quality of data based on three major components – coverage, time sensitivity and ownership of information; and 2) availability of data, which assesses the data’s transparency and openness via three types of user – internal users, external users and international organisations. For each component, the chapter details the status of the rubric at three levels of grading: latent, emerging and advanced.

    • Assessing the readiness of six participating countries to report key education data

      This chapter is divided into two sections. The first section presents the assessment framework used to evaluate countries’ capacities to participate in PISA for Development (PISA-D) by reporting against the project’s system-level questionnaire – it looks at the results by questionnaire and reports i) the overall assessment of each country, ii) the quality and availability of information and data for each country, and iii) the challenges encountered. The second section presents a summary of the overall results by country, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each. The chapter shows that participating countries are generally in a good position to report the requested data. Quality data and metadata are generally available in all of the countries, or can be produced with some additional work. One challenge is that each country has a number of institutions responsible for the different dimensions covered by the questionnaire. However, in all cases, the institution responsible for PISA-D project management has shown a good level of communication with the relevant institutions and organisations.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Detailed country results

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    • Cambodia and the PISA for Development system-level questionnaire

      This chapter provides a detailed assessment of the current state of data collection and availability, in terms of quality and completeness, at the level of the national education system in Cambodia. Cambodia successfully provided data to UIS on education stratification, assessment and examination at lower and upper secondary levels, instruction time in public institutions, and number of students; but challenges included providing data on education expenditure, teacher salaries and teacher training, and national accounts. Data requested on tertiary entrance examinations is not applicable in Cambodia.

    • Ecuador and the PISA for Development system-level questionnaire

      This chapter provides a detailed assessment of the current state of data collection and availability, in terms of quality and completeness, at the level of the national education system in Ecuador. It shows that Ecuador is in a very good position to respond to the system-level questionnaire: each data table or worksheet in the questionnaire has an institution assigned to it to collect and/or manage the requested information; and metadata are consistently based on well-known legislation (national law or administrative norms) while data are regularly based on advanced information systems. Challenges include statistics coverage of educational expenditure and aligning data on enrolment with the fiscal year, especially as the country has two different school cycles.

    • Guatemala and the PISA for Development system-level questionnaire

      This chapter provides a detailed assessment of the current state of data collection and availability, in terms of quality and completeness, at the level of the national education system in Guatemala. It shows that Guatemala is in a good position to respond to the system-level questionnaire: each data table in the questionnaire has an institution assigned to it to collect the requested information; and metadata are all based on well-known legislation (national law or administrative norms) while the data are regularly based on advanced information systems. Challenges include providing data on instruction time, on the duration of pre-primary education according to ISCED levels of education, and on educational expenditure.

    • Paraguay and the PISA for Development system-level questionnaire

      This chapter provides a detailed assessment of the current state of data collection and availability, in terms of quality and completeness, at the level of the national education system in Paraguay. It shows that Paraguay is in very good condition to respond to the system-level questionnaire: each data table in the questionnaire has an institution assigned to it to collect and/or manage the requested information; metadata are based on well-known legislation while statistical data are based on advanced information system; and data requested by the national accounts are well managed. Challenges include the absence of a regulated national statistics system and of a general entrance system to tertiary education in the country, and the fact that data on expenditure does not cover private expenditure on education.

    • Senegal and the PISA for Development system-level questionnaire

      This chapter provides a detailed assessment of the current state of data collection and availability, in terms of quality and completeness, at the level of the national education system in Senegal. It shows that Senegal is in a satisfactory condition to respond to the system-level questionnaire: there are institutions responsible for producing and managing the information requested by the different tables of the questionnaire, and the metadata are in general based on well-known legislation. Data on national accounts are produced in accordance with the highest statistical standards and in a professional manner. Challenges include lack of co-ordination between the different ministries responsible for different levels of education; availability of data on assessments and examinations at secondary level; and providing up-to-date data on education expenditure.

    • Zambia and the PISA for Development system-level questionnaire

      This chapter provides a detailed assessment of the current state of data collection and availability, in terms of quality and completeness, at the level of the national education system in Zambia. Zambia has acceptable capacities to produce the statistics requested through the system-level questionnaire. The country has established mechanisms for conducing high-stakes national examinations and national assessments, as well as implementing international student learning assessments. Legislative instruments are in place to guide the education system’s implementation, to regulate its human resources, and to authorise the activities of various data-producing entities. Challenges include tracking data in expenditure in private institutions, the coverage of education statistics in pre-primary education, and the timely publication of examination and assessments results.

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