Competencies in Canada in a globalisation context
If language assets provide a comparative advantage in a globalising world, Canada appears well placed. This Canadian case study examines evidence from a country with two official languages and a high proportion of immigrants in the population. Canada’s language wealth has grown as shown by total number of languages spoken and the growth in the number of languages; growth in the proportion who know English and French, and other languages; and the number of people knowing more than one language. Several factors affecting the growth of language wealth in Canada were analysed. Multicultural and bilingual policies have been influential. Though hard to quantify the economic and social benefits to the individual and society, soft evidence was found for such benefits. Allophones who work in both official languages earn a good living while retaining their heritage language. Furthermore, the economic benefit to proficient users of English was shown through multivariate analysis.
Catalan language policy and the challenge of new immigration
Catalan, the native language of Catalonia has survived since the medieval era despite foreign conquest, a national dictatorship and the banning of its use. Catalan has been the official language since 1983 with the creation of a language policy to re.establish the normative use of Catalan, making it the main language for instruction and communication in public schools. By 2007 the language was spoken, written and read in 97% of the regionfs schools. Yet, a new challenge has emerged with the large influx of foreign immigrants, which has turned Catalonia into the Spanish region with the largest concentration of immigrants. The Catalan government (Generalitat) has responded with attempts to ensure the Catalan languagefs continued use through the creation of three policies. This chapter describes the role the Generalitat has played in re.establishing the use of the Catalan language and analyses how the region has adapted to this new immigrant population.
Education and creativity in Tanzania
When discussing education in developing nations, such as Tanzania, the role of creativity rarely comes up. Resources, in the form of local artists and musicians, are abundant – but how can we equip this population of artists to take the role of educators, and subsequently connect them with the students that so desperately need an outlet for creative growth? Based on my time working as a musician and music teacher in Tanzania, I highlight one organisation that is working towards this very goal, and discuss why the role that this organisation fills is so vital.
English as a multicultural language for international communication in Asia
As most Asian countries recognise English as an indispensable language for intranational and/or international communication, they are increasingly committed to strengthening and improving English language teaching (ELT). In parts of Asia where English is an official language and ELT succeeds, people may speak English among themselves. Wherever this happens, a set of indigenous language patterns develops. Similar situations have also been witnessed in countries where English is taught and learned as an international language. We need to fully understand these aspects of present-day English if we are to take advantage of English as a language for communication. One important issue is mutual communicability among speakers of different varieties of English. Based on the observation that a common language is not a uniform language, but rather a diverse language, this chapter argues that a way of dealing with English as a multicultural language for worldwide communication is not restrictive conformism but diversity management.
Language education in Japan and Korea
This chapter examines the contexts of English language policies and how they are developed, formulated and implemented in Japan and Korea. This analysis examines each country’s policies through historical, sociological, economic and political lenses in order to understand the multidimensionality of non-native language (NNL) teaching and learning. The two countries are compared and contrasted to determine which NNL learning and teaching practices are shared, and which are specific to each country’s particular context. This analysis also allows the authors to speculate as to which characteristics may support or impede success in NNL learning and teaching. Implications for policy and practice in terms of NNL learning and teaching for each of the countries, as well as for other countries, are explored.
Language learning and Chamorro culture in Guam
What are the competencies required of a responsible member of a global society, and how will he or she acquire them (see Hinton, this volume)? The answer offered here is explored through non.native language learning. Research by socio-linguists has focused on language and socialisation and tells us that competencies required of a community are passed on through language; hence through learning a second language, one can also learn a new set of competencies. This chapter reviews theories of language acquisition as a basis for pedagogy. It examines the idea of interlanguage, the linguistic system used by learners of a second language, and the idea of an interperspective, the perspective developed through interaction with non.native language and culture. It offers an example of what a curriculum focused on teaching language through culture might look like, using the indigenous language of Guam.
Language learning in Peru
This chapter aims to analyse language acquisition and educational outcomes in the Peruvian Quechua native speakers learning Spanish, considering the implications of neuroscientific analysis in the reinforcement of cultural paradigms. Based on the relationship between history, culture and linguistics, the issues resulting from learning Spanish as second language are presented. These are then concretely examined through the impact of functional convergence to establish how learning both languages efficiently becomes a complex yet necessary endeavour. This bridges the analysis to temporally-relevant brain functions that are affected when learning both languages, using the Event-Related Potential framework. Cognitive stimulation through effective child-rearing practices is exemplified as a potential tool for improving language acquisition of either, and both, languages at an early age, taking into consideration socio-cultural concerns.
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