06 Jan 2005
The Dynamics of Massification and Differentiation
US higher education and distinct state systems such as in California offer comparative models for UK higher education. This essay provides a comparative analysis of US and UK higher education, followed by a description of the development, and contemporary structure of California’s system. California offers a broadly accessible network of colleges and universities that are highly differentiated, and that collectively offers multiple routes to a higher education program and degree. It has also proven highly efficient in costs to taxpayers and students. This model provides a lens for an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of UK higher education, and in particular the highly decentralised systems in England and Wales. But in looking to California for possible inspiration, a few words of caution are offered. California may provide ideas about differentiation, governance, access and cost containment. It does not, however, offer much in regard to the difficult process and politics of reorganising or modifying significantly developed higher education systems like that in the United Kingdom.
06 Jan 2005
Assessing the Impact of Higher Education on Regional Development
Higher Education is widely seen as a crucial ingredient in the regional economic development mix, and as fundamental to the development of the knowledge economy (Barclays, 2002). Indeed the Higher Education Funding Council for England has issued broad guidelines for benchmarking good practice in assessing regional development contribution of a higher education institution (HEFCE, 2002). However, there is a dichotomy between the view of higher education as an investment in regional development, and the common evaluative practice of simply assessing the cash-flow consequences of individual institutions. In contrast to the volume of standard impact assessments, there has been relatively little work that seeks to systematically evaluate the effect of higher education on regional development, or indeed to estimate either its net public purse impacts or its export value. This article draws on recent studies to seek to develop a realist evaluation framework that can provide the evidence-base to enhance both the higher education/regional development relationship, and policy making initiatives for the sector.
06 Jan 2005
Universities and Innovation in the Knowledge Economy
The last decade has seen a growing increase in policy discourse in many countries on entrepreneurship and innovation with a prominent emphasis on the role to be played by universities. However, it is far from clear to what extent institutional behaviours are influenced by this enterprising policy discourse based on the broad assumption that "knowledge" is the most precious asset for economic growth in the knowledge economy. This article examines the links developing between the universities and innovation processes especially at the regional level as observed in the United Kingdom, highlighting interactions between public policy and institutional behaviour in a multi-level governance (MLG) structure of knowledge production. Different strategic processes of networking between universities and the links universities are developing with Regional Development Agencies (RDAs) and other partners in nine English regions are illustrated in light of recent government policies which influence the resources and strategies of universities. Universities need to be analysed as critical actors in regional development processes, and their wide range of activities and strategies at different geographical levels need to be strategically co-ordinated as part of a territorial development process within the globalising knowledge economy.
06 Jan 2005
The University, Knowledge Spillovers and Local Development
Universities make an economic contribution to their host territory in two ways. Firstly, there is the direct impact of the initial investment and the effects of students and staff spending and universities’ operating expenditure on the surrounding economy. Secondly, universities are also public institutions that carry out missions of higher education, training and knowledge dissemination that contribute to the local accumulation of human capital, as well as missions of research and knowledge creation that promote technological progress in the host territory. However, this contribution has often been neglected in impact studies. The aim of this article will therefore be to investigate the impact that the creation of new universities has in terms of knowledge spillovers on the economic development of their host territory.
06 Jan 2005
Integrating Research and Teaching Strategies
The relationship between research and teaching has become a highly contested issue perhaps because evidence of synergy between them is modest and inconclusive. It could be argued that the separation of research and teaching is itself the result of policy and operational decisions made over some time to distinguish the way these activities are funded, managed, assessed and rewarded. Even if this were proven to be the case, however, this would not necessarily excuse higher education institutions (HEIs) from an obligation to maximise the beneficial relations between the two. This article explores whether institutions should attempt to do this and, for those that do, how this might be possible for institutional leaders and managers. It considers why the research-teaching link is problematic, the factors affecting whether positive links can be fostered and the implications for management and leadership in institutions and in academic departments. It argues that research, teaching and the relations between them are matters for strategic choices about the nature and future of an HEI and, ultimately, that views and actions on these matters reflect differing beliefs about the nature and purposes of Higher Education.
06 Jan 2005
Democracy and University Education in Nigeria
06 Jan 2005
Art Schools for Tomorrow
Across the OECD, discussions are taking place amongst policymakers, educational managers and educationalists about the future of higher education. More and more is being demanded of higher education at a time when the funds available are shrinking and the costs are rising. Internationalisation and globalisation have transformed the once benign educational market place into a much more competitive environment today. These forces are influencing in a very directive way how individual institutions are organising and managing themselves.
Art Schools are not immune from either these developments or challenges. While many have their origin as (and remain) small, independent, publicly (or privately) funded schools, others are entering into formal (and informal) collaborative arrangements sometimes resulting in merger with universities, while others are building upon their enduring "membership" of an interdisciplinary university. Nevertheless, they all share the need to respond to a common set of characteristics and emerging trends of our age, inter alia globalisation and internationalisation; changing demographics and enrolment patterns; technological revolution; stricter regulatory environment; new educational sites and formats; changing nature of the workplace. As HEIs are reorganising and restructuring themselves to meet new economic, political and fiscal priorities, the academy has also come under pressure. Based on a Keynote Address to the IMHE conference, "Managing Art Schools Today" (August 2003), this paper presents an overview of some issues impacting on art schools today and asks how they are responding and trying to shape their future. It will focus on some key management issues, e.g. research, curriculum and organisational models, and suggest some strategic choices.