Education Indicators in Focus

How Has the Global Economic Crisis Affected People with Different Levels of Education ?
ISSN: 
2226-7077 (online)
DOI: 
10.1787/22267077
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Education Indicators in Focus is a recurring series of briefs that highlight specific indicators in OECD’s Education at a Glance that are of particular interest to policy makers and practitioners. They provide a detailed look into current issues in pre-primary, primary and secondary education, higher education, and adult outcomes from a global perspective, and contain an engaging mix of text, tables and charts that describe the international context of the most pressing questions in education policy and practice.
Also available in French
 
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  N° 1   01 Jan 2012
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k9fgpwlc6s0-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-has-the-global-economic-crisis-affected-people-with-different-levels-of-education_5k9fgpwlc6s0-en
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How Has the Global Economic Crisis Affected People with Different Levels of Education ?
OECD
With all the economic turmoil of the past several years, have you ever wished you could buy an insurance policy to protect against the effects of a global recession? Well, such an insurance policy already exists – and it’s called higher education....
  N° 2   01 Feb 2012
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k9fd0kd59f4-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-are-countries-around-the-world-supporting-students-in-higher-education_5k9fd0kd59f4-en
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How Are Countries Around the World Supporting Students in Higher Education?
OECD
Few would dispute that having a higher education is more important than ever to help people build positive economic futures and strengthen the knowledge economies of countries. Yet as the second issue of the OECD’s new brief series Education...
  N° 3   01 Mar 2012
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k9csf9bxzs7-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-are-girls-doing-in-school-and-women-doing-in-employment-around-the-world_5k9csf9bxzs7-en
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How Are Girls Doing in School – and Women Doing in Employment – Around the World?
OECD
As the world celebrates the achievements of women this month, what can be said about the progress of girls and young women in education, and of women in employment, throughout the world? As the third issue of the OECD's new brief series Education...
  N° 4   01 Apr 2012
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k97krntvqtf-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-pronounced-is-income-inequality-around-the-world-and-how-can-education-help-reduce-it_5k97krntvqtf-en
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How Pronounced Is Income Inequality Around the World - And How Can Education Help Reduce It?
OECD
Over the past three decades, the income gap between the rich and the poor has widened across most OECD countries. As the global economic crisis and the changing needs of the worldwide labour market threaten to increase inequality further, how can...
  N° 5   01 May 2012
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k97krns40d4-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-is-the-global-talent-pool-changing_5k97krns40d4-en
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How Is the Global Talent Pool Changing?
OECD
At a time when having more education is increasingly necessary for success in the labour market, how is the talent pool of young higher education graduates changing around the world? According to the OECD’s latest analysis, not only has it exploded...
  N° 6   01 June 2012
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k961l69d8tg-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-are-the-returns-on-higher-education-for-individuals-and-countries_5k961l69d8tg-en
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What Are the Returns on Higher Education for Individuals and Countries?
OECD
Investing in higher (tertiary) education is one of the more significant decisions a person can take. In some countries, the direct costs of higher education can be large, often requiring a significant investment of an individual’s personal funds,...
  N° 7   01 Sep 2012
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k91d4fsqj0w-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-well-are-countries-educating-young-people-to-the-level-needed-for-a-job-and-a-living-wage_5k91d4fsqj0w-en
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How Well Are Countries Educating Young People to the Level Needed for a Job and a Living Wage?
OECD
An upper secondary qualification (ISCED 3) has become the norm for young people in OECD countries. Today it is considered the minimum qualification for successful participation in the labour market and for integration in society.In 2010, across OECD...
  N° 8   01 Oct 2012
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k8zs43nlm42-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/is-increasing-private-expenditure-especially-in-tertiary-education-associated-with-less-public-funding-and-less-equitable-access_5k8zs43nlm42-en
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Is Increasing Private Expenditure, Especially in Tertiary Education, Associated with Less Public Funding and Less Equitable Access?
OECD
Between 2000 and 2009, total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP rose by 0.88 percentage point from 5.34% to 6.22%; the increase came from both public and private sources.In OECD countries, 16.0% of total educational...
  N° 9   01 Nov 2012
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k8x7gvpr9jc-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-does-class-size-vary-around-the-world_5k8x7gvpr9jc-en
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How Does Class Size Vary Around the World?
OECD
In OECD countries, the average class size at the lower secondary level is 23 students, but there are significant differences between countries, ranging from over 32 in Japan and Korea to 19 or below in Estonia, Iceland, Luxembourg, Slovenia and the...
  N° 10   01 Jan 2013
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k4ddxnl39vk-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-are-the-social-benefits-of-education_5k4ddxnl39vk-en
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What Are the Social Benefits of Education?
OECD
On average across 15 OECD countries, a 30-year-old male tertiary graduate can expect to live another 51 years, while a 30 year-old man who has not completed upper secondary education can expect to live an additional 43 years. A similar comparison...
  N° 12   01 Mar 2013
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k4818h3l242-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/which-factors-determine-the-level-of-expenditure-on-teaching-staff_5k4818h3l242-en
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Which Factors Determine the Level of Expenditure on Teaching Staff?
OECD
The higher the level of education, the higher the salary cost of teachers per student. In Belgium (Flemish Community), France and Spain, the difference in the annual salary cost between the primary and upper secondary levels of education exceeds USD...
  N° 11   01 Mar 2013
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k49czkz4bq2-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-do-early-childhood-education-and-care-ecec-policies-systems-and-quality-vary-across-oecd-countries_5k49czkz4bq2-en
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How Do Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Policies, Systems and Quality Vary Across OECD Countries?
OECD
In many OECD countries, ECEC services have increased in response to a growing demand for better learning outcomes as well as growing female labour force participation. In recent years, however, the goals of ECEC policy have become more child-centred....
  N° 13   01 May 2013
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k44zcplv70q-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-difficult-is-it-to-move-from-school-to-work_5k44zcplv70q-en
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How Difficult is it to Move from School to Work?
OECD
In some countries, an increasing number of young people are neither in employment, nor in education or training (NEET). A high proportion of NEETs is an indicator of a difficult transition between school and work. Higher educational attainment eases...
  N° 14   01 July 2013
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k43k8r4k821-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-is-international-student-mobility-shaping-up_5k43k8r4k821-en
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How is International Student Mobility Shaping Up?
OECD
Between 2000 and 2011, the number of international students has more than doubled. Today, almost 4.5 million tertiary students are enrolled outside their country of citizenship. The largest numbers of international students are from China, India and...
  N° 15   01 Sep 2013
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k3z04ch3d5c-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-are-university-students-changing_5k3z04ch3d5c-en
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How Are University Students Changing?
OECD
More than 23 million students across the OECD and G20 countries will start their first universitylevel course in 2013. The new generation of students will be particularly diverse, with more adults and international students than ever. Entry rates...
  N° 17   01 Nov 2013
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jzbb2st885l-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/does-upper-secondary-vocational-education-and-training-improve-the-prospects-of-young-adults_5jzbb2st885l-en
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Does Upper Secondary Vocational Education and Training Improve the Prospects of Young adults?
OECD
One-third of the population of OECD countries hold an upper secondary vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest educational attainment, and it is estimated that nearly half will graduate from a VET programme in their...
  N° 16   01 Nov 2013
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5k3wb8khp3zn-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-can-countries-best-produce-a-highly-qualified-young-labour-force_5k3wb8khp3zn-en
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How Can Countries Best Produce a Highly-qualified Young Labour Force?
OECD
In an economically uncertain world, countries must balance the need for austerity with the need to invest in building a high-quality workforce. There is only a weak relationship between spending per student and tertiary attainment rates – the same...
  N° 18   01 Dec 2013
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jzbb2sprz20-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-is-the-impact-of-the-economic-crisis-on-public-education-spending_5jzbb2sprz20-en
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What is the Impact of the Economic Crisis on Public Education Spending?
OECD
The aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis has meant a significant number of countries have cut public spending on education. Despite GDP rising in most OECD countries between 2009 and 2010, public expenditure on educational institutions fell in...
  N° 19   01 Feb 2014
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jz8ssmzg5q4-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-are-tertiary-students-choosing-to-study_5jz8ssmzg5q4-en
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What Are Tertiary Students Choosing to Study?
OECD
The social sciences are the most popular field for non-vocational tertiary education programmes. One in three new students choose a programme in social sciences, business and law. Gender equality has been virtually achieved in many fields of study,...
  N° 20   01 Mar 2014
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jz76b5dhsnx-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-old-are-the-teachers_5jz76b5dhsnx-en
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How Old Are the Teachers?
OECD
More than one-third of male primary school teachers in OECD countries are now over 50 years old. Across OECD countries, the average age of secondary school teachers has increased by one month every year in the last decade. Only a few countries have...
  N° 22   01 Apr 2014
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jz44fnl1t6k-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-much-time-do-primary-and-lower-secondary-students-spend-in-the-classroom_5jz44fnl1t6k-en
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How Much Time Do Primary and Lower Secondary Students Spend in the Classroom?
OECD
Students in OECD countries are expected to receive a total of 7 751 hours of instruction on average during their primary and lower secondary education – the bulk of that time is compulsory. In general, the higher the level of education, the greater...
  N° 21   01 Apr 2014
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jz6wn8xjvvh-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-much-are-teachers-paid-and-how-much-does-it-matter_5jz6wn8xjvvh-en
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How Much Are Teachers Paid and How Much Does it Matter?
OECD
Teachers’ salaries increased in real terms between 2000 and 2011 in virtually all OECD countries, but mostly remain below those of other tertiary-educated workers. Statutory salaries for lower secondary school teachers with 15 years of experience are...
  N° 23   01 May 2014
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jz3wl5rvjtk-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/at-what-age-do-university-students-earn-their-first-degree_5jz3wl5rvjtk-en
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At What Age Do University Students Earn Their First Degree?
OECD
Across OECD countries, the median age students first graduated from university fell by 6 months between 2005 and 2011. The median age of first graduation ranges from around 22 in Belgium and the United Kingdom to over 27 in Iceland and Israel. The...
  N° 24   01 July 2014
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jz1157b915d-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-innovative-is-the-education-sector_5jz1157b915d-en
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How Innovative is the Education Sector?
OECD
Education has one of the highest shares of innovative jobs for tertiary graduates of all sectors of the economy in Europe, and a higher proportion than in other public sector areas such as health and public administration. Innovation in knowledge or...
  N° 25   01 Oct 2014
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jxv8xsvp1g2-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/who-are-the-doctorate-holders-and-where-do-their-qualifications-lead-them_5jxv8xsvp1g2-en
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Who Are the Doctorate Holders and where Do Their Qualifications Lead Them?
OECD
Many countries have implemented reforms to develop and support doctoral studies and postdoctoral research, stressing the crucial role of doctorate students and degree holders in terms of economic growth, innovation and scientific research. The number...
  N° 26   01 Nov 2014
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jxsvvmr9z8n-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/learning-begets-learning-adult-participation-in-lifelong-education_5jxsvvmr9z8n-en
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Learning Begets Learning
OECD
In Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden, participation rates in adult education and learning are over 60%, but they are one-third – or below – in Italy, the Russian Federation and the Slovak Republic. The more highly educated adults...
  N° 27   01 Dec 2014
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jxrcllj8pwl-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-are-the-earnings-advantages-from-education_5jxrcllj8pwl-en
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What Are the Earnings Advantages from Education?
OECD
Rising levels of tertiary attainment seem not to have led to an “inflation” eroding the labour-market value of qualifications. However, tertiary graduates have the highest relative earnings advantage when they live in a country with low tertiary...
  N° 28   01 Jan 2015
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5js7lx8zx90r-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/are-young-people-attaining-higher-levels-of-education-than-their-parents_5js7lx8zx90r-en
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Are Young People Attaining Higher Levels of Education than their Parents?
OECD
Between 2000 and 2012, the proportion of young adults (25-34 year-olds) with a tertiary qualification has grown by more than 3% per year on average in OECD countries. On average across 24 national and sub-national entities participating in the OECD...
  N° 29   01 Feb 2015
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5js64kndz1f3-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-much-time-do-teachers-spend-on-teaching-and-non-teaching-activities_5js64kndz1f3-en
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How Much Time Do Teachers Spend on Teaching and Non-teaching Activities?
OECD
The annual number of teaching hours of teachers differs greatly from one country to another and tends to decrease as the level of education increases. On average across countries, teachers spend half of their working time in non-teaching activities...
  N° 30   01 Mar 2015
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5js4q17gg540-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/education-and-employment_5js4q17gg540-en
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Education and employment
OECD
Among 25-34 year-olds, more women than men hold a tertiary qualification in 33 of the 36 countries for which data are comparable. Gender differences still exist in certain fields, with more men studying science, computing and engineering, and with...
  N° 31   01 Apr 2015
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5js33lf9jk41-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-is-the-global-talent-pool-changing-2013-2030_5js33lf9jk41-en
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How is the global talent pool changing (2013, 2030)?
OECD
The number of tertiary educated young people (25-34 years old) in OECD and G20 countries has grown by nearly 45% in the past decade and is expected to keep growing until 2030. If current trends continue, the contribution of OECD countries to the...
  N° 32   01 June 2015
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5js0bsgdtr28-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/are-education-and-skills-being-distributed-more-inclusively_5js0bsgdtr28-en
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Are Education and Skills being Distributed more Inclusively?
OECD
Educational opportunities have a very important impact on a person’s life. Employment, earnings, well-being, health and trust are all strongly related to education and skills. A lack of high-quality educational opportunities is the most important way...
  N° 33   01 July 2015
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jrxtk4cg7wg-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/focus-on-vocational-education-and-training-vet-programmes_5jrxtk4cg7wg-en
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Focus on vocational education and training (VET) programmes
OECD
In 2012, in more than one-third of OECD countries, over half of all upper secondary students participated in pre-vocational or vocational programmes but less than 30% of those students were exposed to work‑based learning. Countries with...
  N° 34   01 Aug 2015
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jrw5p4jn426-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-are-the-advantages-today-of-having-an-upper-secondary-qualification_5jrw5p4jn426-en
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What are the advantages today of having an upper secondary qualification?
OECD
In most OECD countries, the large majority of adults had at least an upper secondary qualification in 2013, making the completion of upper secondary education the minimum threshold for successful labour market entry and continued employability or the...
  N° 35   01 Oct 2015
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jrs703c47s1-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-do-differences-in-social-and-cultural-background-influence-access-to-higher-education-and-the-completion-of-studies_5jrs703c47s1-en
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How do differences in social and cultural background influence access to higher education and the completion of studies?
OECD
Parents’ level of education still greatly influences that of their children: individuals are 4.5 times more likely to attend higher education if one of their parents has a higher education degree than if both their parents have below upper secondary...
  N° 36   24 Nov 2015
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jrqgdw9k1lr-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-are-the-benefits-of-isced-2011-classification-for-indicators-on-education_5jrqgdw9k1lr-en
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What are the benefits of ISCED 2011 classification for indicators on education?
OECD
The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is the reference framework used to classify education programmes and related qualifications by education levels and fields. The basic concepts and definitions of ISCED are intended to be...
  N° 37   08 Jan 2016
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jm5hl10rbtj-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/who-are-the-bachelor-s-and-master-s-graduates_5jm5hl10rbtj-en
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Who are the bachelor's and master's graduates?
OECD
Graduation rates for bachelor’s and master’s degrees have dramatically increased over the past two decades, with 6 million bachelor’s degrees and 3 million master’s degrees awarded in OECD countries in 2013. Although women represent over half of the...
  N° 38   16 Feb 2016
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jm3tqsm1kq5-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-is-learning-time-organised-in-primary-and-secondary-education_5jm3tqsm1kq5-en
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How is learning time organised in primary and secondary education?
OECD
The number and length of school holidays differs significantly across OECD countries, meaning the number of instructional days in primary and secondary education ranges from 162 days a year in France to more than 200 days in Israel and Japan. The...
  N° 39   09 Mar 2016
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jm2f77d5wkg-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/the-internationalisation-of-doctoral-and-master-s-studies_5jm2f77d5wkg-en
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The internationalisation of doctoral and master's studies
OECD
One in ten students at the master’s or equivalent level is an international student in OECD countries, rising to one in four at the doctoral level. Almost 60% of international doctoral students in OECD countries are enrolled in science, engineering...
  N° 40   22 Apr 2016
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jm0q1mvzqmq-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/teachers-ict-and-problem-solving-skills_5jm0q1mvzqmq-en
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Teachers' ICT and problem-solving skills
OECD
The education sector performs well for information and communication technology (ICT) and problem-solving skills, although it still lags behind the professional, scientific and technical activities sector. Primary and secondary teachers have better...
  N° 41   13 May 2016
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jlz9zk830hf-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/how-much-do-tertiary-students-pay-and-what-public-support-do-they-receive_5jlz9zk830hf-en
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How much do tertiary students pay and what public support do they receive?
OECD
OECD countries differ significantly in the way spending on tertiary education is shared between public and private sources of funding, and in the financial support they provide to students. Countries with high tuition fees tend to also be those where...
  N° 42   16 June 2016
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jlwqvr76dbq-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-are-the-benefits-from-early-childhood-education_5jlwqvr76dbq-en
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What are the benefits from early childhood education?
OECD
Early childhood education and care programmes (ECEC) have become more accessible in recent years, with high enrolment rates in both early childhood educational development and preprimary education. The educational results of students at the age of 15...
  N° 43   08 July 2016
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jlvc7mddlkl-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/subnational-variations-in-educational-attainment-and-labour-market-outcomes_5jlvc7mddlkl-en
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Subnational variations in educational attainment and labour market outcomes
OECD
Levels of educational attainment do not only vary among countries, but also within them. In many countries, people with tertiary education – usually the most skilled people – are more highly represented in the capital region. Regional employment...
  N° 44   23 Aug 2016
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/attainment-and-labour-market-outcomes-among-young-tertiary-graduates_5jlsmkvp0slq-en
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Attainment and labour market outcomes among young tertiary graduates
OECD
Among 25-34 year-olds with a tertiary degree, the proportion of those who obtained at least a master’s or equivalent degree varies from 4% in Chile to 79% in the Slovak Republic. Tertiary attainment also varies across generations: while 49% of...
  N° 45   28 Oct 2016
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/fields-of-education-gender-and-the-labour-market_5jlpgh1ppm30-en
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Fields of education, gender and the labour market
OECD
More and more adults are earning a tertiary qualification, but not all tertiary degrees have the same value on the labour market. In general, postgraduate degrees such as master’s and doctoral degrees are associated with higher employment rates and...
  N° 46   30 Nov 2016
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5jln041965kg-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/what-influences-spending-on-education_5jln041965kg-en
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What influences spending on education?
OECD
The challenge of providing more and better education with tightening public budgets has made governments increasingly interested in the efficient allocation of education resources. Results from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment...
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