Reviews of National Policies for Education

1990-0198 (online)
1563-4914 (print)
Hide / Show Abstract

Reviews of National Policies for Education offer customised, in-depth analysis and advice to assist policy makers in developing and implementing education policy. Individual reviews can focus on a specific policy area, a particular level of education or a country’s entire education system. These reviews are conducted at the request of the country concerned.

Also available in French, Spanish
Education in Indonesia

Education in Indonesia

Rising to the Challenge You do not have access to this content

Click to Access:
  • PDF
  • READ
25 Mar 2015
9789264230750 (PDF) ;9789264230743(print)

Hide / Show Abstract

Having made impressive progress in widening access to basic education, Indonesia must now consolidate these gains and develop an education system that will support better the needs of a rapidly emerging economy in its transition towards high-income status. This report provides guidance on how Indonesia can rise to this challenge. It highlights three main policy directions which, pursued together, would help Indonesia advance on the path towards stronger growth and more inclusive and sustainable development. The first priority is to raise the quality of education and ensure that all learners acquire the skills they need to succeed in life and work. The second goal is to widen participation, requiring a concerted effort to improve access for disadvantaged groups and expand provision beyond the basic level. The final challenge is to increase efficiency, with a more data-driven approach to resource allocation, better tailoring of provision to local needs, and stronger performance management.

loader image

Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Table of Contents

  • Mark Click to Access
  • Foreword

    Indonesia is one of the major economies of Southeast Asia and the government has set itself ambitious goals for its social and economic development, for which human capital development is crucial. Despite great regional divergences which limit access to quality education for many, Indonesia has made impressive progress on many fronts in the education sector since the 1997-98 Asian crisis such as coverage of basic education. Many challenges remain including expanding enrolment in secondary and tertiary education, increasing quality and relevance and making governance and finance more responsive.

  • Acronyms
  • Executive summary

    Education and skills are central to Indonesia’s growth prospects in the next decade. It now has the opportunity to capitalise on the very substantial progress that has been made in expanding access to education. At the turn of the century, over 1.5 million students were out of school but today, Indonesia is close to achieving universal basic education. These efforts have involved relatively high levels of investment on educational facilities, teaching personnel and learning materials.

  • Assessment and recommendations

    Indonesia is well-positioned geographically in terms of world trade flows, with extensive natural resources and immense potential, deriving not least from its large young population – some 43% of its 250 million people are under 25 years old. It will not realise its potential as one of the world’s major emerging market economies, however, if it relies merely on exploiting its natural resources and its demographic structure. It will need to develop its human capital through education that leads to effective learning and skills formation. It must do so urgently, given the lead that comparator and competitor nations, especially in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) but also in other regions, have over Indonesia on many indicators of physical infrastructure, educational attainment and performance, advanced human capital and research capacity, and the pace and scale at which they are moving ahead.

  • The Indonesian education system in context

    Indonesia is an archipelago stretching some 5 000 kilometres between the Indian and Pacific Oceans and encompassing three time zones from its western to its eastern end. It comprises 17 508 islands, only around 6 000 of which are inhabited, and is the fourth largest country in the world, with a widely distributed population totalling more than 250 million. It also has the 16th largest economy in the world, and the largest economy in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). One of the world’s major emerging market economies, Indonesia is a member of the G20 group of major economies. It is also the world’s most populous Muslim nation.

  • Add to Marked List
  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Education sub-sector opportunities and challenges

    • Mark Click to Access
    • Early childhood education in Indonesia

      Indonesia has done much to expand access to education for children at all stages of learning. The quality of learning children encounter during the early years of their development will affect their readiness to learn when they enter primary education. This in turn will help or hinder them in junior and senior secondary school.

    • Basic education in Indonesia

      A number of government policies have contributed to improving the access, availability and affordability of basic education in Indonesia, and the country is now close to achieving universal primary education. The school operational assistance (bantuan operasional sekolah or BOS) grant, introduced in 2005, enabled free education in primary and junior secondary schools and had a significant impact on increasing access to basic education. It helped all schools but particularly those in poor and more remote areas, many of which previously lacked an education budget. "One Roof" primary and junior secondary schools, which share a building, have also been important in increasing equitable access to basic education particularly in remote areas. A school rehabilitation programme has helped improve learning environments and strengthen school-based decision making.

    • Senior secondary education in Indonesia

      Senior secondary education is provided in a variety of ways in Indonesia: formal, non-formal and informal. It builds on the nine years of basic education (six years of primary school and three years of junior secondary school). Students entering senior secondary school can attend either a more academically oriented school or vocational school. This applies in both the Islamic and non-Islamic systems. Formal senior secondary education comprises general education (sekolah menengah atas, or SMA), vocational education (sekolah menengah kejuruan, or SMK), Islamic senior secondary schools (madrasah aliyah, or MA) and Islamic vocational education (madrasah aliyah kejuruan, or MAK). This chapter concentrates largely on the provision of academic senior secondary education, while Chapter 5 considers the vocational side.

    • Initial vocational education and training in Indonesia

      Any review of the efficacy of the current provision of vocational education and training in Indonesia must consider how successfully it addresses the context of Indonesia as a developing economy, and its vision for the future.

    • Tertiary education in Indonesia

      Tertiary education in Indonesia has gone through a period of continuous growth since higher education was first formally included in the national education system via the Education Law 15/1961. In recent years, Indonesia has seen an impressive and rapid growth in the sector with a doubling of the budget over the four-year period from 2008 to 2012 and a marked rise in enrolment.

    • Add to Marked List
  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Cross-cutting opportunities and challenges

    • Mark Click to Access
    • Education for life, work and further learning in Indonesia

      The review team takes a rounded view of the role of education, which has personal, community, societal and economic purposes. Education is about forming the whole human person to realise her or his potential and live a fulfilling life. It is about socialising individuals to the ethical values and cultural norms of the community in which they live and liberating them from their backgrounds by widening their mental horizons and aspirations, and opening options to pursue opportunities beyond those available locally. Education is a means of acquiring skills, from skills of personal survival and healthy growth through to skills as contributing citizens of the nation. Education builds generic and knowledge-specific skills and understanding for work in different contexts, whether in employment or self-employment or as an employer or entrepreneur. Education is about developing adaptive expertise – the ability to apply learned knowledge and skills flexibly and creatively in different situations. Effective education lays the cognitive and behavioural foundations and motivations for further learning throughout life as actively inquiring rather than passively accepting citizens.

    • Teaching and educational leadership in Indonesia

      Indonesia faces a considerable challenge in providing an education workforce able to deliver high-quality teaching to every student across the country. The government is taking this challenge seriously and has introduced a number of key policies to raise the status and quality of teachers. The most significant of these policies is the Law on Teachers and Lecturers (Law No.14 2005), which confirmed teaching as a profession. The Law on Teachers and Lecturers requires all teachers to hold an academic bachelor’s degree and to successfully achieve certification. The professional allowances that accompany the new certification process have led to pay increases, which effectively double the income of certified teachers. This has aligned teachers’ status with other professions such as law and medicine and has provided effective incentives for teachers to upgrade their qualifications. Many pre-service lecturers, principals and teachers told the review team that the perception of teaching as a career is improving rapidly and that more students are now attracted to enter the profession because of these policies. A number of inefficiencies have also arisen from this reform, however, in terms of the system’s financing and the distribution of its teachers.

    • Appropriate educational assessment in Indonesia

      Assessment is arguably at the core of formal education, as it informs the validation of learning and decisions about educational interventions – in the classroom and at the system level. Educational assessment provides a basis for understanding how and how well student learning is occurring, according to which judgements can be made about student progress in education (see Box 9.1).

    • Add to Marked List
Visit the OECD web site