Education at a Glance 2015
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Education at a Glance 2015

OECD Indicators

Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators is the authoritative source for accurate information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in education; and the learning environment and organisation of schools.

The 2015 edition introduces more detailed analysis of participation in early childhood and tertiary levels of education. The report also examines first generation tertiary-educated adults’ educational and social mobility, labour market outcomes for recent graduates, and participation in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education. Readiness to use information and communication technology for problem solving in teaching and learning is also examined. The publication provides indicators on the impact of skills on employment and earnings, gender differences in education and employment, and teacher and school leader appraisal systems. For the first time, this edition includes highlights of each indicator inside the book. The report covers all 34 OECD countries and a number of partner countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Latvia, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia and South Africa, and for the first time, Costa Rica and Lithuania).

The Excel™ spreadsheets used to create the tables and charts in Education at a Glance are available via the StatLinks provided throughout the publication.

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Indicator A8 How are Social Outcomes Related to Education? You do not have access to this content

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Indicator A8 examines the relationship between levels of educational attainment and social outcomes, including health status, volunteering, trust in others and having a say in government.

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Chapter Highlights

  • On average across countries and sub-national entities that participated in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) (2012), adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy (i.e. having a say in government).

  • The proportion of adults who reported that they have a say in government (political efficacy) grows with each additional level of education; and the difference in these proportions is larger between adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and those with tertiary education than between adults who have below upper secondary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education.

  • The proportion of adults who reported that they volunteer and enjoy good-to-excellent health grows with each additional level of education; and the difference in these proportions is larger between adults with below upper secondary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education than between adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary and those with tertiary education.

Chart A8.1. Social outcomes related to education (2012)
Survey of Adult Skills, average, 25-64  year-olds, upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as reference category

How to read this chart

Percentage-point difference reflects the relative change of social outcomes compared to the reference category. For example, on average the percentage of individuals with tertiary education reporting that they have a say in government increases by 13 percentage points compared to someone who has upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. After accounting for literacy proficiency or numeracy proficiency the increase drops to 10 percentage points. On the other hand, on average the percentage of individuals with below upper secondary education reporting that they have a say in government decreases by 7 percentage points compared to someone who has upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. After accounting for literacy proficiency or numeracy proficiency the decrease rises to 4 percentage points.

Note: Calculations are based on a linear regression after accounting for gender, age and monthly earnings.

Social outcomes are ranked in descending order of percentage-point difference between upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education.

Source: OECD. Tables A8.1, A8.2, A8.3a, A8.4, and Tables A8.1 (L), A8.1 (N), A8.2 (L), A8.2 (N), A8.3a (L), A8.3a (N), A8.4 (L) and A8.4 (N), available on line. See Annex 3 for notes (www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance-19991487.htm).

ContextExpand / Collapse

With recent increases in chronic debilitating conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes and depression, governments are focusing their efforts on encouraging changes in lifestyle to promote healthy behaviours (OECD, 2013a). The relationship between health and education has been well-documented in many countries and over many years. Indeed, better-educated people have lower morbidity rates and increased life expectancy (Cutler and Lleras-Muney, 2006).

Health is not the sole social outcome related to education. Interpersonal trust, volunteering and political engagement are also positively associated with education. Without trust in others and the rule of law, all relationships, whether business, political or social, function less efficiently. When people feel they have something to offer, when they are aware of others around them, they are more apt to participate in social change through volunteering. And when people feel they understand the political issues facing their country and could make a difference in how their country is run, they are more likely to be politically engaged (OECD, 2013b).

Other findingsExpand / Collapse

  • The differences in the shares of the population reporting positive social outcomes observed among adults with different levels of educational attainment partly reflect differences in age, gender and earnings. In most countries, accounting for these factors reduces, but does not eliminate, the differences observed in social outcomes across levels of educational attainment.

  • The outcome that is most strongly influenced by individuals’ age, gender and earnings is health, where consideration of these factors reduces, by about half, differences in the share of adults reporting good or excellent health across levels of educational attainment. The differences across levels of educational attainment are generally not strongly related to these factors for volunteering, interpersonal trust and political efficacy.

  • Both literacy and numeracy skills are associated with positive social outcomes, although educational attainment itself is the primary factor associated with differences in social outcomes.

 
 
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