20 Oct 2006
The Process of Regulatory Authorisation
Governments and/or regulatory authorities are responsible for, among other things, the definition of regulatory controls or conditions, if any, that should be applied to radioactive sources or radiation exposure situations in order to appropriately protect the public, workers and the environment. Countries use different policy and structural approaches to fulfil this responsibility. Generally, the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are used as at least part of the basis for protection. Now, with the evolution of recommendations from the ICRP, a single, conceptually simple, and self-coherent approach can be used by governments and regulatory authorities to define appropriate protection under all circumstances. This report describes this process.
20 Oct 2006
Regulatory Challenges in Using Nuclear Operating Experience
As the nuclear programmes in OECD countries have matured over the four decades of commercial nuclear power operation, this maturation has brought steady improvements in the operational safety of nuclear power plants. This improvement is demonstrated by several performance indicators, but most notably by the reduced frequency and severity of accident precursor events relative to the events of, say, ten to twenty years ago. One of the major reasons for this improved performance has been the extensive use of lessons from operating experience to backfit safety systems, improve operator training and emergency procedures, and to focus more attention on human factors, safety culture and nuclear quality management systems. Indeed, a prominent lesson from the TMI-2 accident in 1979 was the need for systematic evaluation of operating experience on an industry-wide basis, both by the nuclear industry, which has the greatest direct stake in safe operations, and by the nuclear regulator...
20 Oct 2006
Benchmark on Computer Simulation of MASURCA Critical and Subcritical Experiments
The efficient and safe management of spent fuel produced during the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is an important issue. In this context, partitioning and transmutation (P&T) of minor actinides and long-lived fission products can play an important role, significantly reducing the burden on geological repositories of nuclear waste and allowing their more effective use. Various systems, including existing reactors, fast reactors and advanced systems have been considered to optimise the transmutation scheme. Recently, many countries have shown interest in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) due to their potential for transmutation of minor actinides. Much R&D work is still required in order to demonstrate their desired capability as a whole system, and the current analysis methods and nuclear data for minor actinide burners are not as well established as those for conventionally-fuelled systems...
20 Oct 2006
Stakeholders and Radiological Protection
This report is a tribute to the people living in areas that, 20 years after still live with the effects of the Chernobyl disaster. It shares the experiences of radiation protection professionals who reached out to some of those impacted by the Chernobyl accident, engaging to assist them to become knowledgeable and active managers of their own radiation exposure while living in a radioactively contaminated environment. Active stakeholder involvement gave these residents the capability to participate in the decision-framing process to address their issues regarding the rehabilitation of their living conditions in the contaminated territories. This more inclusive approach to decision-framing and issue resolution allowed the affected residents to gain greater control over their future. The report also describes stakeholder involvement initiatives from Norway and the United Kingdom, as examples from countries further afield. In the conduct of ongoing reviews of existing nuclear and radiological emergency protocols and preparing for emerging threats it is important to consider and implement as appropriate the many lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident...