03 Oct 2005
Manure Policy and MINAS
This paper discusses the manure policy in the Netherlands with emphasis on the N and P accounting system MINAS. MINAS was introduced by the Netherlands’ government in 1998, to step-wise decrease the N and P surpluses at farm level in 5 to 10 years to environmental acceptable levels (e.g. Henkens and Van Keulen, 2001). Individual farms that exceed certain levy-free surpluses for N and P (expressed in kg per ha per year) are charged with a financial levy, so as to encourage farmers to decrease the N and P surpluses. Whilst the use of nutrient balances in agricultural research has a history of at least one century, using nutrient balances with levies on surpluses as an instrument to ecologically transform agriculture had no precedent.
03 Oct 2005
The United Kingdom Climate Change Levy
This report focuses on one environmental instrument which is part of the UK’s wider programme of policies to deal with its various obligations to control climate change. The instrument is the Climate Change Levy (CCL) which takes the form of a tax on energy. However, the CCL cannot be viewed in isolation – it is part of a fairly elaborate package of measures, and its interaction with the other instruments in that package need to be understood. Accordingly, we first set out a brief history of the UK’s approach to climate change control, and describe the various components of the policy package. A detailed history of the CCL is then provided, and this is followed by an analysis of the features of the CCL, focusing particularly on the political factors that influenced its design, and the various reactions to it. Finally, we look at the likely future of the CCL in light of developments in climate change policy in the wider Europe.