OECD Journal: General Papers

OECD Papers
  |   Documents de l'OCDE
1995-283X (online)
1995-2821 (print)
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OECD Journal: General Papers presents a collection of articles on a range of subjects, from the latest OECD research on macroeconomics and economic policies, to work in areas as varied as employment, education, environment, trade, science and technology, development and taxation.  Published as part of the OECD Journal package.


Volume 2009, Issue 3 You do not have access to this content

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  04 Dec 2009
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/biotechnologies-in-agriculture-and-related-natural-resources-to-2015_gen_papers-2009-5kmjkjtfzztj
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Biotechnologies in Agriculture and Related Natural Resources to 2015
Anthony Arundel, David Sawaya
The main current uses of biotechnology for agriculture and related natural resources (ANR) are for plant and animal breeding and diagnostics, with a few applications in veterinary medicine. This encompasses the use of both transgenic and non-transgenic biotechnologies. This study provides an overview of the current state of technological development and, through an analysis of quantitative data related to R&D pipelines and the current literature, presents estimates and projections for the types of biotechnologies expected to reach the market for use in ANR to 2015. The trends indicate that several novel agronomic and product quality traits will reach the market for a growing number of crops. Biotechnologies other than genetic modification (GM) will also be used to improve livestock for dairy and meat. Socioeconomic issues, such as market concentration and public acceptance, are also examined to further refine the analysis of issues that will influence biotechnological developments and adoption for ANR. These results point to a future for ANR where biotechnologies play a substantially larger role than today. This will be visible in an increased use of biotechnologies for a wider range of plants and animals, and the active involvement of a growing number of countries in the development of biotechnologies.
  04 Dec 2009
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/human-health-biotechnologies-to-2015_gen_papers-2009-5kmjkjtfxdg7
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Human Health Biotechnologies to 2015
Anthony Arundel, David Sawaya, Ioana Valeanu
This article provides an overview of the current use of biotechnology to produce human health products and short-term estimates of the number and types of these products that are likely to reach the market by 2015. Relevant health products include biopharmaceuticals, experimental therapies (e.g. cell/tissue engineering and gene therapy), small molecule therapeutics, diagnostics, bioinformatics (including DNA sequencing and pharmacogenetics), functional food and nutraceuticals, and medical devices. The analysis of current use is based on regulatory approval data and the current literature and includes a comparison of the additional therapeutic value of biopharmaceuticals compared to small molecule pharmaceuticals. The short-term estimates of the number and types of products that are likely to reach the market by 2015 are based, where possible, on an analysis of quantitative data on clinical trials. For several other products, including functional foods and nutraceuticals, it is not possible to make short-term estimates due to a lack of reliable data. While the biopharmaceutical share of all pharmaceuticals reaching the market is expected to remain very close to historical levels, biotechnology is expected to be used in the discovery, development, manufacturing, and/or prescribing of nearly all new drugs by 2015. In addition, the use of biotech based diagnostics (especially genetic testing), bioinformatics, and pharmacogenetics is likely to increase. In some cases, these technologies will be used to improve the safety and efficacy of clinical trials, to personalise prescribing practises, and to reduce adverse drug reactions.
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