OECD Journal: General Papers

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ISSN: 
1995-283X (online)
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1995-2821 (print)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/1995283x
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OECD Journal: General Papers presents a collection of articles on a range of subjects, from the latest OECD research on macroeconomics and economic policies, to work in areas as varied as employment, education, environment, trade, science and technology, development and taxation.  Published as part of the OECD Journal package.

 

Volume 2009, Issue 2 You do not have access to this content

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  22 Sep 2009
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/0209021ec002.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/ghana-agriculture-is-becoming-a-business_gen_papers-2009-5ks9zs5gt1d2
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Ghana: Agriculture is Becoming a Business
Denise Wolter
Ghana’s agricultural sector has two faces. On the one hand, Ghana continues to face food security problems due to stagnating productivity in the food crop sector and undeveloped internal food markets. On the other hand, horticultural exports have been increasing and recent investments in cocoa and pineapple processing can been seen as signs of an emerging modern agricultural sector. The horticultural sector currently receives a lot of attention from donors and the Ghanaian government. The examination of several large donor projects in this sector reveals that donors are increasingly taking a value chain approach and trying to link smallholder farmers to exporters via outgrower schemes. Donors are also making an effort to connect their projects with other ongoing interventions. However, donor approaches vary according to donor preferences, and multi-donor programmes would probably be a better solution. While the current focus of donors and the Ghanaian government in the horticultural sector is welcome, it bears the risk of leaving the north of Ghana, where food crop production and poverty are concentrated, further behind. Food crops should receive more attention not only to resolve Ghana’s food security problem but also to take advantage of growing demand from Ghana’s middle-income class, which provides the opportunity for developing a local food industry.
  22 Sep 2009
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/0209021ec003.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/mali-beyond-cotton-searching-for-green-gold_gen_papers-2009-5ks9zs5grzg4
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Mali: Beyond Cotton? Searching for "Green Gold"
Yoshiko Matsumoto-Izadifar
The Malian economy faces the challenge of reducing its over-dependence on cotton and gold. In order to do so, a search for "green gold" — commercial agriculture beyond cotton — is underway. Mali has started to exploit export market opportunities for horticulture products in Europe as well as in neighbouring countries. Moreover, the country is currently testing the introduction of domestic wheat production for local processing. Although donors are increasingly supporting the development of these new agricultural products, the reform of the cotton sector continues to receive their special attention. Moreover, certain agricultural sub-sectors such as livestock and fishing receive only limited support. The development of a vibrant private sector in agriculture requires further improvements in government policies and donor support, but also more active private sector participation. The government should re-engage in agricultural diversification, and donors should strive to increase the sustainability of their interventions. To this end, greater co-ordination between donors and government is needed in tandem with strengthening the capacity of the local private actors. The study highlights progress towards better donor co-ordination in agriculture and encouraging results, especially with respect to facilitating access to credit for farmers and fostering producers’ organisations. At the same time, it argues that there remains ample room for improvement. Donors tend to crowd in certain segments of the agricultural value chain and to specialise in specific export crops (e.g. the mango sector where 12 donors are currently operating) at the expense of some other important areas, which require additional support (e.g. livestock, transport infrastructure and logistics). A more balanced and coherent approach is warranted.
  22 Sep 2009
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/0209021ec004.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/senegal-making-better-use-of-agribusiness-potential_gen_papers-2009-5ks9zs5gr0tj
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Senegal: Making Better Use of Agribusiness Potential
Yoshiko Matsumoto-Izadifar
Senegal is a showcase of donors’ support to horticultural export development in sub-Saharan Africa. The first direct donor support to the Senegalese horticultural value chain dates back to 1998, with the World Bank-funded Agricultural Export Promotion Project (PPEA). Early recognition of the need to tackle the whole agricultural value chain, from inputs to production, processing and marketing, characterises donors’ support to the agricultural sector in Senegal. Facing declining traditional export sectors, groundnuts and fishing, Senegal has been undergoing a difficult transition process from traditional to commercial agriculture over the past decade. The 1994 devaluation of the CFA franc has benefited Senegal’s fruit and vegetables sub-sector, which presents the main hope of diversifying the country’s agricultural export structure. Consequently, the primary sector grew annually at an average 6.2 per cent between 2002 and 2005, which was much higher than real annual GDP growth. The chapter shows that aid to the agricultural sector has been proving positive in supporting the Senegalese government’s new sectoral development principle, the Accelerated Growth Strategy (SCA). Senegal has started to attract foreign investment in the export-oriented horticultural sector. Moreover, small and medium-sized horticultural producers and exporters, better organised and more empowered, have succeeded in increasing production and export volume, while simultaneously satisfying the stringent sanitary and phytosanitary requirements of the OECD markets. Today, Senegal’s agriculture faces challenges of expanding targeted products and markets. Donor assistance to Senegalese agriculture has evolved and donors are now applying a differentiated market approach for multiple private actors to work better with agricultural entrepreneurs. Strengthening Senegal’s agricultural potential and diversifying its agricultural production and export profile both horizontally and vertically are the long-term goals for both donors and the country.
  22 Sep 2009
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/0209021ec005.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/tanzania-the-challenge-of-moving-from-subsistence-to-profit_gen_papers-2009-5ks9zs5gq30n
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Tanzania: The Challenge of Moving from Subsistence to Profit
Denise Wolter
Tanzania could be a major food-exporting country but its dependence on rainfall, poor transport and marketing infrastructures, as well as low access to technology, lead to persistent food security problems. The Tanzanian government has decided to focus its Agricultural Sector Development Programme (ASDP) on irrigation. However, even though the importance of irrigation to reduce Tanzania’s dependency on rainfall is undisputed, it would have been better to have a two-fold programme with one part focusing on production-related investments such as irrigation and the other fostering commercial agriculture and the private sector. While donor commitments to agriculture show a mixed trend, Tanzania is one of the few African countries with a basket fund in agriculture. The Tanzanian government aims to establish the ASDP as the sector programme to which all donor interventions should be aligned. First reviews of the ASDP reveal that capacity to implement the programme is lacking at all levels. A lot of capacity building and a change of mindset in Local Government Authorities (LGAs) are needed to make farmer empowerment and private sector involvement a reality. Furthermore, rural and agricultural development efforts should be better co-ordinated as both draw on the same limited capacities at the local level.
  22 Sep 2009
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/0209021ec006.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/zambia-sustaining-agricultural-diversification_gen_papers-v2009-art6-en
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Zambia: Sustaining Agricultural Diversification
Federico Bonaglia
Zambia has a huge agricultural potential, which is still largely untapped, and could play a key role in growth and poverty eradication. Since the early 2000s, the government has implemented important reforms to promote privatisation and trade reforms, leading to higher investment and a strong growth in export crops such as cotton and horticulture. Despite this success, agricultural productivity, especially for food crops, remains low. The study shows that public resources to the agricultural sector have drastically decreased since the early 1990s, while private sector providers have not stepped in to fill the void left by the government disengagement from input supply and marketing. Despite a strong government commitment to reverse this trend, budget figures show that the share in total allocations dropped again in the 2008 budget. The study also argues that evaluations of past donor interventions in agriculture are not very positive, especially in terms of their sustainability. Projects often paid little attention to local absorptive and implementing capacity, had too narrow a focus on production and food security, and lacked an adequate understanding of the socio-economic conditions and behaviour of the target groups. Lack of co-ordination resulted in duplications and insufficient scale. A new generation of donor projects emerged in the early 2000s, with a strong focus on commercialisation and the development of market linkages, especially via contract farming. These projects have borne good results in terms of production volumes, quality standards and access to international commodity chains, as well as farmers’ income. The key challenge for donors is to scale up these success cases and ensure sustainability. The implementation of the Joint Assistance Strategy for Zambia 2007-2010 is an opportunity to achieve a better division of labour, strengthen synergies on the ground and reduce transaction costs for government. Acknowledgements The Zambia
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