OECD Economics Department Working Papers

Economic resilience: what role for policies?
1815-1973 (online)
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Working papers from the Economics Department of the OECD that cover the full range of the Department’s work including the economic situation, policy analysis and projections; fiscal policy, public expenditure and taxation; and structural issues including ageing, growth and productivity, migration, environment, human capital, housing, trade and investment, labour markets, regulatory reform, competition, health, and other issues.

The views expressed in these papers are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or of the governments of its member countries.

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Page: 1 (N° 1251) … , 19 (N° 349) , 20 (N° 299) , 21 (N° 249) … 25 (N° 48) | Next
Mark Number Date TitleClick to Access
  N° 299   14 June 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/encouraging-environmentally-sustainable-growth-in-poland_148456178784
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Encouraging Environmentally Sustainable Growth in Poland
Grzegorz Peszko, Patrick Lenain
This paper reviews several aspects of Poland’s environmental policies. Its main finding is that substantial progress has been made in dealing with the environmentally unfriendly legacy from the past. Poland has successfully combined emission permits based on environmental quality standards,...
  N° 298   11 June 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/tracking-the-euro_536702025320
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Tracking the Euro
Vincent Koen, Laurence Boone, Alain de Serres, Nicola Fuchs
During the first two years of monetary union, the euro's weakness surprised most market participants. Explanations proliferated ranging from fundamentals such as differences in growth prospects to psychological factors such as herd behaviour, but no single story fully accounts for the...
  N° 297   07 June 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/firm-dynamics-and-productivity-growth_054842728775
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Firm Dynamics and Productivity Growth
Sanghoon Ahn
This paper surveys recent empirical studies exploring aggregate productivity growth based on firm dynamics, focusing on micro-data from OECD countries. Aggregate productivity growth can be analysed as a sum of two separate processes. i) Changes in productivity in individual firms at a given...
  N° 296   17 May 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/how-should-norway-respond-to-ageing_385156551776
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How Should Norway Respond to Ageing?
Pablo Antolín, Wim Suyker
Norway, like most OECD countries, will experience a significant ageing of its population, although it will be less dramatic. Moreover, it starts from an enviable position: employment rates of older people are among the highest in the OECD, pension outlays are currently relatively low and...
  N° 295   18 May 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/how-will-ageing-affect-finland_361422456778
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How Will Ageing Affect Finland?
Pablo Antolín, Howard Oxley, Wim Suyker
In Finland, as in most OECD countries, the ageing of the population is one of the major long-term policy challenges. This paper first explores the scale of the demographic changes in Finland, the relevant institutions and their effect on the decision to retire. In light of the increase in the...
  N° 294   14 May 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/sectoral-regulatory-reforms-in-italy_857601117127
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Sectoral Regulatory Reforms in Italy
Alessandro Goglio
This paper discusses product market regulatory reforms in Italy over the past decade. Special attention is given to the underlying macroeconomic context for sectoral reforms and the role played by such reforms in consolidating the gains of macroeconomic convergence for entry into the European...
  N° 293   09 May 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/encouraging-environmentally-sustainable-growth_046738633224
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Encouraging Environmentally Sustainable Growth
Paul O’Brien, Ann Vourc'h
Clean air, clean water, fewer toxic emissions and less household waste are among the key environmental policy objectives that most OECD governments have been pursuing over the past three decades. This effort to take more account of the environmental costs of economic growth has been pursued in...
  N° 292   03 May 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/increasing-simplicity-neutrality-and-sustainability_600040410286
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Increasing Simplicity, Neutrality and Sustainability
Richard Herd, Thorsteinn Thorgeirsson
This paper analyses the possibilities for reforming the Icelandic tax system. It puts the current tax structure in its historic context, showing that there has been a steady movement towards simplification. The personal income tax has a lower than average number of bands and, taxes capital...
  N° 291   19 Apr 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/options-for-reforming-the-tax-system-in-greece_668734032323
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Options for Reforming The Tax System in Greece
Chiara Bronchi
For many years Greece has not made a systematic effort to redesign the whole tax system. Changes to taxation have been made in a piecemeal fashion, and many of them have led to a complex and non-transparent system, characterised by narrow bases and fairly high rates. There has also been a...
  N° 290   22 Mar 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/encouraging-environmentally-sustainable-growth-in-canada_113221185672
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Encouraging Environmentally Sustainable Growth in Canada
Ann Vourc'h
This paper analyses aspects of natural resource policy and environmental policy in Canada. In the taxation of resource-based activities, the management of water supply and the Atlantic fisheries management, the paper finds that there are incentives that may lead to overexploitation,...
  N° 289   08 Mar 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/encouraging-environmentally-sustainable-growth-in-sweden_710585417734
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Encouraging Environmentally Sustainable Growth in Sweden
Deborah Roseveare
This paper analyses Sweden’s policies for addressing a range of key environmental challenges. Although Sweden has a deliberately comprehensive approach to establishing its environmental objectives and policies, some issues have received particular attention. These include acidification and...
  N° 288   02 Mar 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/public-spending-in-mexico_314432213841
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Public Spending in Mexico
Bénédicte Larre, Marcos Bonturi
Public sector reforms and a refocusing of spending, partly through privatisation, have created a leaner and more effective government in Mexico. Primary expenditure, at around 18 per cent of GDP in 1999, is less than half the average for the OECD. At the same time, there are important spending...
  N° 287   08 Feb 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/regulation-in-services_223766183220
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Regulation in Services
Giuseppe Nicoletti
The paper looks at patterns of regulation in service industries and explores their implications for service performance. Focusing on restrictions to market mechanisms, a map of the state of service regulation in OECD countries is provided, based on data recently collected and summarised by the...
  N° 286   08 Feb 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/a-small-global-forecasting-model_628640803664
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A Small Global Forecasting Model
David Rae, David Turner
This paper describes the OECD’s new small global forecasting model for the three main OECD economic regions: the United States, the euro area, and Japan. The key variables – which include output, inflation, the trade balance, and import prices – are driven by monetary and fiscal policy,...
  N° 285   08 Feb 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/managing-public-expenditure_066436018532
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Managing Public Expenditure
Paul Atkinson, Paul van den Noord
This paper highlights some key policy issues regarding the performance of public expenditure and proposes an analytical framework for its assessment. The framework distinguishes three economic objectives of policies in the pursuit of better performance of public expenditure: macroeconomic...
  N° 284   18 June 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/trends-in-immigration-and-economic-consequences_553515678780
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Trends in Immigration and Economic Consequences
Jonathan Coppel, Jean-Christophe Dumont, Ignazio Visco
This paper reviews immigration trends and their economic impacts in a number of OECD countries. While migration systems present similarities across countries, institutional arrangements vary widely and impact on the size and composition of migration flows. Some of the main factors driving...
  N° 283   31 Jan 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/economic-growth-the-role-of-policies-and-institutions_722675213381
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Economic Growth: The Role of Policies and Institutions
Andrea Bassanini, Stefano Scarpetta, Philip Hemmings
This paper discusses links between policy settings, institutions and economic growth in OECD countries on the basis of cross-country time-series regressions. The econometric approach allows short-term adjustments and convergence speeds to vary across countries, imposing restrictions only on the...
  N° 282   31 Jan 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/does-human-capital-matter-for-growth-in-oecd-countries_424300244276
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Does Human Capital Matter for Growth in OECD Countries?
Andrea Bassanini, Stefano Scarpetta
This paper presents empirical estimates of human-capital augmented growth equations for a panel of 21 OECD countries over the period 1971-98. It uses an improved dataset on human capital and a novel econometric technique that reconciles growth model assumptions with the needs of panel data...
  N° 281   31 Jan 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-tax-system-in-new-zealand_382808014300
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The Tax System in New Zealand
Thomas Dalsgaard
New Zealand’s tax system is one of the most neutral and efficient in the OECD. Bases are generally broad and rates are moderate. The full imputation system for dividend payments works to reduce tax distortions for corporate financing decisions, while efficiency in corporate investment decisions...
  N° 280   21 Mar 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/contributions-of-financial-systems-to-growth-in-oecd-countries_888167575648
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Contributions of Financial Systems to Growth in OECD Countries
Michael Leahy, Sebastian Schich, Gert Wehinger, Florian Pelgrin, Thorsteinn Thorgeirsson
The recent period of sustained high growth in the United States has drawn attention to its financial system and the efficiency with which it seems to be able to channel funds to new productive investment projects, particularly in hi-tech industries. This study examines the role played by the...
  N° 279   26 Jan 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/house-prices-and-economic-activity_061034430132
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House Prices and Economic Activity
Nathalie Girouard, Sveinbjörn Blöndal
This paper reviews the role of house prices in influencing private consumption and residential investment in OECD countries. Deregulation of the mortgage markets in most OECD countries since the 1970s has made it easier for households to borrow for current consumption on the basis of their...
  N° 278   26 Jan 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/encouraging-environmentally-sustainable-growth-in-the-united-states_037506286027
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Encouraging Environmentally Sustainable Growth in the United States
Paul O’Brien
This paper analyses aspects of US environmental policy, including, among others, policy on air and water quality, water supply in certain areas, climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Particular attention is paid to certain policies in agriculture and road transport, sectors with an...
  N° 277   25 Jan 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/encouraging-environmentally-sustainable-growth-in-denmark_616447850757
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Encouraging Environmentally Sustainable Growth in Denmark
Paul O'Brien, Jens Høj
This paper analyses aspects of environmental policy in Denmark, including, among others, policy on surface water quality, clean air and support for renewable energy, waste disposal and transport policy. Environmental policies are an important priority in Denmark, with implementation often...
  N° 276   31 Jan 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/making-growth-more-environmentally-sustainable-in-germany_438703523226
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Making Growth More Environmentally Sustainable in Germany
Grant Kirkpatrick, Gernot Klepper, Robert W.R. Price
This document analyses German environmental policies, including, among others, discussion of air and water quality policy, use of the waste management hierarchy approach and of voluntary agreements. The German public has been highly sensitive to environmental concerns, leading to many policy...
  N° 275   10 Jan 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/central-control-of-regional-budget_560325048014
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Central Control of Regional Budget
John M. Litwack
Motivated by the recent experience in the Russian Federation, this paper examines the implications of imposing central control on the budgetary activities of a subnational government. In a highly stylised multi-task principal-agent model (Holmstrom and Milgrom (1991)), a central government...
  N° 274   19 Dec 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/a-post-mortem-on-economic-outlook-projections_351822846618
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A Post-Mortem on Economic Outlook Projections
Vassiliki Koutsogeorgopoulou
This paper reviews the accuracy of the OECD Economic Outlook projections — both "current year" and "year ahead" — for output growth, inflation and current account balances (as a percentage of GDP) for the major seven countries, as well as projections for world trade growth. The sample period...
  N° 273   21 Dec 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/fixed-cost-imperfect-competition-and-bias-in-technology-measurement_260256735077
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Fixed Cost, Imperfect Competition and Bias in Technology Measurement
Kiyohiko G. Nishimura, Masato Shirai
In many industries, competition is far from perfect and managerial efficiency (or a fixed cost) varies among firms. However, traditional measurement of technological progress assumes perfect competition and no fixed cost. This paper incorporates these two factors in the technological-progress...
  N° 272   13 Dec 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/entry-exit-and-aggregate-productivity-growth_656402673613
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Entry, Exit, and Aggregate Productivity Growth
Chin Hee Hahn
Using plant level panel data on Korean manufacturing during the 1990-98 period, this study tries to assess the role of entry and exit in enhancing aggregate productivity, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The main findings of this study are summarised as follows. First, plant entry and...
  N° 271   06 Dec 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-tax-system-in-korea_467050327112
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The Tax System in Korea
Thomas Dalsgaard
The tax burden in Korea is among the lowest in the OECD area, mainly reflecting that the social safety net is at an early stage of development. The low tax burden implies limited tax induced economic distortions but as expenditure pressures will mount in the future, neutrality and efficiency of...
  N° 270   25 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/a-multi-gas-assessment-of-the-kyoto-protocol_540631321683
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A Multi-Gas Assessment of the Kyoto Protocol
Jean-Marc Burniaux
The Kyoto Protocol covers emissions of a range of greenhouse gases. Yet, most attempts to quantify the economic impact of implementing the Protocol’s emission targets for the period 2008-12 have focused exclusively on CO2 emissions. This paper extends previous OECD analysis confined to CO2...
  N° 269   27 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-changing-health-system-in-france_353501840323
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The Changing Health System in France
Yutaka Imai, Stéphane Jacobzone, Patrick Lenain
This paper reviews the performance of French health care system from an economic viewpoint. It also provides some policy recommendations. The health system in France is regarded as delivering high quality services, with freedom of choice and generally no waiting lists for treatments. Access to...
  N° 268   12 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/inward-investment-and-technical-progress-in-the-uk-manufacturing-sector_171541878788
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Inward Investment and Technical Progress in the UK Manufacturing Sector
Florence Hubert, Nigel Pain
This paper investigates the impact of direct investment by foreign-owned companies on technical progress and hence labour productivity in the UK manufacturing sector. Using an industry-level panel data set we find that foreign-owned firms have a significant positive effect on the level of...
  N° 267   12 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/aggregate-growth_303067464021
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Aggregate Growth
John Haltiwanger
This paper provides a synthesis of what is known about the determinants of output growth based on studying microeconomic data sets. It starts with a summary of the theoretical explanations which help reconcile heterogeneous performance observed across establishments in the same sector. The...
  N° 266   12 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/determinants-of-long-term-growth_834681262223
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Determinants of Long-Term Growth
Gernot Doppelhofer, Ronald I. Miller, Xavier Sala-i-Martin
This paper examines the robustness of explanatory variables in cross-country economic growth regressions. It employs a novel approach, Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates (BACE), which constructs estimates as a weighted average of OLS estimates for every possible combination of included...
  N° 265   12 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-great-reversals_371486741616
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The Great Reversals
Raghuram G. Rajan, Luigi Zingales
We attempt to identify and explain the broad patterns of financial development in developed countries over the twentieth century. We find that, contrary to the predictions of most existing theories, indicators of financial development do not seem monotonic over time. In particular, we find that...
  N° 264   12 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/trade-and-growth_768732688342
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Trade and Growth
Robert E. Baldwin
The relationships between trade and growth have long been a subject of considerable controversy among economists. In the early post-World War II period, many economic leaders concluded that protective trade policies stimulated growth, and import substitution policies were widely adopted by...
  N° 263   12 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/growth-effects-of-education-and-social-capital-in-the-oecd-countries_882344562861
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Growth Effects of Education and Social Capital in the OECD Countries
Jonathan Temple
This paper surveys the empirical literature on the growth effects of education and social capital. The main focus is on the cross-country evidence for the OECD countries, but the paper also briefly reviews evidence from labour economics, to clarify where empirical work on education using macro...
  N° 262   12 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/human-capital-in-growth-regressions_750033432084
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Human Capital in Growth Regressions
Angel de la Fuente, Rafael Donénech
We construct a revised version of the Barro and Lee (1996) data set for a sample of OECD countries using previously unexploited sources and following a heuristic approach to obtain plausible time profiles for attainment levels by removing sharp breaks in the data that seem to reflect changes in...
  N° 261   31 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/raising-the-speed-limit_561481176503
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Raising the Speed Limit
Dale W. Jorgenson, Kevin J. Stiroh
This paper examines the underpinnings of the successful performance of the US economy in the late 1990s. Relative to the early 1990s, output growth has accelerated by nearly two percentage points. We attribute this to rapid capital accumulation, a surge in hours worked, and faster growth of...
  N° 260   12 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/summary-of-an-informal-workshop-on-the-causes-of-economic-growth_685184050123
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Summary of an Informal Workshop on the Causes of Economic Growth
Jonathan Temple
This paper provides a summary of an OECD workshop on the causes of economic growth, held 6-7 July 2000. The topics covered include the recent growth resurgence in the United States, the potential importance of ICT and the Internet, and the part played by continual reallocation and...
  N° 259   13 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/knowledge-technology-and-economic-growth_536435460443
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Knowledge, Technology and Economic Growth
Andrea Bassanini, Stefano Scarpetta, Ignazio Visco
In this paper we present an international comparison of growth trends in the OECD countries, with a special attention to developments in labour productivity - allowing for human capital accumulation – and multifactor productivity (MFP) - allowing for changes in the composition of fixed capital....
  N° 258   02 Oct 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/average-effective-tax-rates-on-capital-labour-and-consumption_247874530426
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Average Effective Tax Rates on Capital, Labour and Consumption
David Carey, Harry Tchilinguirian
Over the past 15 years, tax reforms have profoundly changed the shape of OECD tax systems and rekindled interest in measuring effective tax burdens. Indeed, in order to understand past reforms or to evaluate the tax policies of particular countries, it is necessary to go beyond statutory rates...
  N° 257   21 Sep 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-health-care-system-in-poland_265022143317
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The Health Care System in Poland
Nathalie Girouard, Yutaka Imai
This paper reviews the performance of Polish health care system from an economic perspective. High on the reform agenda of the government for several years, a new national health insurance system entered into force on 1 January 1999. This reform marked an important shift from a centrally...
  N° 256   29 Aug 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/public-expenditure-reform_207823881077
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Public Expenditure Reform
Vincent Koen
Health services are largely tax-financed in the United Kingdom and account for 14 per cent of general government spending. This paper analyses how the National Health Service (NHS) has been dealing with the associated expenditure pressures in the pre-1990 set-up and during the "quasi-market"...
  N° 255   03 Aug 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/regulatory-reform-in-road-freight-and-retail-distribution_254485547873
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Regulatory Reform in Road Freight and Retail Distribution
Olivier Boylaud
The purpose of this paper is to analyse regulatory developments in the road freight and retail distribution industries of OECD Member countries. For each industry, the analysis is divided into four parts. First, structural developments in the industry are outlined. Second, the main features of...
  N° 254   03 Aug 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/regulation-market-structure-and-performance-in-air-passenger-transportation_163610427241
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Regulation, Market Structure and Performance in Air Passenger Transportation
Rauf Gönenç, Giuseppe Nicoletti
The paper uses a data base on regulation, market structure and performance in the air passenger transportation industry, to analyse the links among liberalisation, private ownership, competition, efficiency and airfares at national and route levels. Covering the 1996-97 travel season, 21...
  N° 253   29 June 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/policy-interdependence-during-economic-transition_668888088480
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Policy Interdependence during Economic Transition
Joaquim Oliveira Martins, Tristan Price
This paper sets out a framework to analyse the interdependence of reforms in different policy areas during the transition process. It identifies four broad policy blocks related to liberalisation, stabilisation, exit and entry. The transition process in Slovakia is a case study of the striking...
  N° 252   23 June 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/e-commerce_801315684632
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Jonathan Coppel
E-commerce -- an application of the Internet -- has expanded exponentially over the past 5 years and is widely expected to continue to develop rapidly in the medium-term. Much, however, remains to be done to fully exploit the opportunities offered by e-commerce. And as e-commerce develops, it...
  N° 251   22 June 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-implementation-and-the-effects-of-regulatory-reform_413754754615
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The Implementation and the Effects of Regulatory Reform
Rauf Gönenç, Maria Maher, Giuseppe Nicoletti
This paper reviews trends, outcomes and issues in regulatory reform in OECD countries. First, it summarises the evidence on the evolution of regulatory environments and the economy-wide and sectoral effects of reforms (including privatisation) in both competitive and non-competitive industries...
  N° 250   22 June 2000 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-concept-policy-use-and-measurement-of-structural-unemployment_785730283515
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The Concept, Policy Use and Measurement of Structural Unemployment
Pete Richardson, Laurence Boone, Claude Giorno, Mara Meacci, David Rae, David Turner
The structural rate of unemployment and associated non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (the NAIRU) are of major importance to the analysis of macro and structural economic developments, although in practice these concepts are not well defined and there is considerable uncertainty...
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