OECD Economics Department Working Papers

Gender Equality and Economic Growth in India
1815-1973 (online)
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Working papers from the Economics Department of the OECD that cover the full range of the Department’s work including the economic situation, policy analysis and projections; fiscal policy, public expenditure and taxation; and structural issues including ageing, growth and productivity, migration, environment, human capital, housing, trade and investment, labour markets, regulatory reform, competition, health, and other issues.

The views expressed in these papers are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or of the governments of its member countries.

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Page: 1 (N° 1263) , 2 (N° 1212) , 3 (N° 1162) … 26 (N° 10) | Next
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  N° 1263   07 Sep 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/gender-equality-and-economic-growth-in-india_5jrtpbnt7zf4-en
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Gender Equality and Economic Growth in India
Pierre-Richard Agénor, Jan Mares, Piritta Sorsa
This paper studies how public policies, including pro-women interventions, can raise female labour force participation and promote economic growth in India. The first part provides a brief review of gender issues in the country. The second part presents a gender-based OLG model, based on Agénor...
  N° 1262   02 Sep 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/achieving-fiscal-consolidation-while-promoting-social-cohesion-in-japan_5jrtpbs9fg0v-en
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Achieving Fiscal Consolidation while Promoting Social Cohesion in Japan
Randall S. Jones, Kohei Fukawa
With gross government debt of 226% of GDP, Japan’s fiscal situation is in uncharted territory and puts the economy at risk. Japan needs a detailed and credible fiscal consolidation plan, including specific revenue increases and measures to control spending to restore its fiscal sustainability....
  N° 1261   02 Sep 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/enhancing-dynamism-and-innovation-in-japan-s-business-sector_5jrtpbtkbhs1-en
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Enhancing Dynamism and Innovation in Japan's Business Sector
Randall S. Jones, Myungkyoo Kim
Innovation is key to boosting economic growth in the face of a rapidly ageing population. While Japan spends heavily on education and R&D, appropriate framework conditions are essential to increase the return on such investments by strengthening competition, both domestic and international, and...
  N° 1260   21 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/vocational-training-and-adult-learning-for-better-skills-in-france_5jrw21kjthln-en
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Vocational training and adult learning for better skills in France
Nicola Brandt
France devotes a great deal of resources to vocational training for youths and especially adults, but the system is unduly complex and yields rather poor returns. The basic literacy and numeracy skills of many French adults remain weak in international comparison, with harmful effects on...
  N° 1259   21 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/structural-policies-and-productivityfirm_5jrw21mfp4kd-en
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Structural policies and productivity
Jens Arnold, Natália Barbosa
This paper provides empirical evidence on links between the productivity of Portuguese firms and a number of policy variables in Portugal. The analysis is based on a census of Portuguese manufacturing companies, covering more than 40,000 firms between 2006 and 2011. The results suggest that a...
  N° 1258   21 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/reducing-inequality-and-poverty-in-portugal_5jrw21ng3ts3-en
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Reducing inequality and poverty in Portugal
Jens Arnold, Carlos Farinha Rodrigues
Portugal has one of the most unequal income distributions in Europe and poverty levels are high. The economic crisis has halted a long-term gradual decline in both inequality and poverty and the number of poor households is rising, with children and youths being particularly affected....
  N° 1257   21 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/boosting-export-performance-in-portugal_5jrw21nm480q-en
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Boosting export performance in Portugal
Jens Arnold
In the years before the economic crisis, Portugal had low growth, a decline in export competitiveness and rising imbalances that included a large current account deficit and a strong expansion of the non-tradable sector. Strengthening export performance is therefore one of the principal...
  N° 1256   21 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/making-new-zealand-s-economic-growth-more-inclusive_5jrw21ntclwc-en
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Making New Zealand's economic growth more inclusive
David Carey
New Zealand generally performs well in terms of economic and social inclusion. It has high employment rates, and education and health-care systems work well for most. However, some New Zealanders are stuck on low incomes and face material deprivation and multiple barriers to economic and social...
  N° 1255   01 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/policy-areas-for-increasing-productivity-in-latvia-economics_5jrw57nr0f23-en
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Policy areas for increasing productivity in Latvia economics
Zuzana Smidova
Much of the convergence of the Latvian economy needs to come from productivity increases. To achieve this, policy makers should do more to facilitate the integration of the economy into global trade and promote competitive business environment. By benchmarking Latvia vis-à-vis the other Baltic...
  N° 1254   01 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/improving-public-sector-efficiency-for-more-inclusive-growth-in-latvia_5jrw57p59bxx-en
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Improving public sector efficiency for more inclusive growth in Latvia
Caroline Klein, Robert W.R. Price
This working paper explores avenues to improve public sector efficiency in Latvia, a catching-up and ageing economy where spending needs are large. Ensuring that spending allocated to core services (e.g. education, healthcare) is adequate to achieve convergence of policy outcomes to OECD upper...
  N° 1253   07 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/non-standard-contracts-flexibility-and-employment-adjustment_5jrw7j0mdlnt-en
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Non-standard contracts, flexibility and employment adjustment
Larisa Smirnykh, Andreas Wörgötter
This paper examines the use of two forms of non-standard work contracts in Russia with data from an enterprise survey for the years 2009 to 2011. Non-standard work contracts are less costly and more flexible for employers. Internal adjustment in form of wage cuts or unpaid leave is not covered...
  N° 1252   07 Aug 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/russia-progress-in-structural-reform-and-framework-conditions-2011-13_5jrw7j0zgb33-en
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Russia: Progress in Structural Reform and Framework Conditions 2011-13
Yana Vaziakova
Since 1995 when OECD began conducting Economic Surveys of the Russian Federation many policy recommendations relating to structural reform and framework conditions have been made. This paper is an update of an earlier paper that described actions taken up to October 2011 (Vaziakova et al.,...
  N° 1251   28 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/economic-resilience-what-role-for-policies_5jrxhgf61q5j-en
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Economic resilience: what role for policies?
Aida Caldera Sánchez, Morten Rasmussen, Oliver Röhn
The global financial crisis highlighted the importance of strengthening the resilience of our economies to adverse shocks. In this paper, we take stock of studies carried out primarily within, but also outside the OECD, to better understand the role of macroeconomic and structural policies in...
  N° 1250   28 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/economic-resilience-the-usefulness-of-early-warning-indicators-in-oecd-countries_5jrxhgfqx3mv-en
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Economic resilience: The usefulness of early warning indicators in OECD countries
Mikkel Hermansen, Oliver Röhn
The global financial crisis and the high associated costs have revived the academic and policy interest in "early warning indicators" of crises. This paper provides empirical evidence on the usefulness of a new set of vulnerability indicators, proposed in a companion paper (Röhn et al., 2015),...
  N° 1249   28 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/economic-resilience-a-new-set-of-vulnerability-indicators-for-oecd-countries_5jrxhgjw54r8-en
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Economic resilience: A new set of vulnerability indicators for OECD countries
Oliver Röhn, Aida Caldera Sánchez, Mikkel Hermansen, Morten Rasmussen
The high costs of crises underscore the need to strengthen the resilience of economies, notably by assessing early on potential vulnerabilities that can lead to such costly events. This paper first discusses the source and nature of potential vulnerabilities in OECD countries that can lead to...
  N° 1248   23 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/fiscal-constitutions-an-empirical-assessment_5jrxjctrxp8r-en
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Fiscal constitutions: An empirical assessment
Hansjörg Blöchliger, Jaroslaw Kantorowicz
Fiscal constitutions comprise the set of rules and frameworks guiding fiscal policy that are enshrined in a country’s fundamental laws. This paper compares the fiscal constitutions of 15 federal countries by empirically assessing five building blocks: 1) the power of sub-national governments to...
  N° 1247   09 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/sustaining-the-economic-expansion-in-new-zealand_5jrxqbg8c8np-en
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Sustaining the economic expansion in New Zealand
Corinne Luu
The NZ economy has performed well over the past few years, having achieved relatively strong GDP and employment growth. However, some constraints to sustaining this momentum beyond the short term are emerging in the fields of skills, housing and urban infrastructure. Skills shortages have risen...
  N° 1246   09 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/policies-for-inclusive-and-sustainable-growth-in-indonesia_5jrxqbh40r35-en
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Policies for inclusive and sustainable growth in Indonesia
Petar Vujanovic
Indonesia has a very good record of poverty reduction, having halved its incidence over the past two decades. Nevertheless, almost 30 million people still live below the national poverty line, mostly in rural areas and in certain provinces. In order to make further progress in lifting these...
  N° 1245   09 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/enhancing-the-financing-of-the-real-economy-and-financial-stability-in-the-united-kingdom_5jrxqbk75c43-en
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Enhancing the financing of the real economy and financial stability in the United Kingdom
Olena Havrylchyk, Rafal Kierzenkowski
The banking sector in the United Kingdom (UK) was deeply affected by the crisis. Bank credit has collapsed reflecting both weak demand and tighter supply. New prudential requirements have improved the resilience of the banking sector and a number of measures were taken to support credit supply....
  N° 1244   09 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/improving-infrastructure-in-the-united-kingdom_5jrxqbqc7m0p-en
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Improving infrastructure in the United Kingdom
Mauro Pisu, Barbara Pels, Novella Bottini
The United Kingdom (UK) has spent less on infrastructure compared to other OECD countries over the past three decades. The perceived quality of UK infrastructure assets is close to the OECD average but lower than in other G7 countries. Capacity constraints have emerged in some sectors, such as...
  N° 1243   15 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/restoring-the-financial-sector-and-corporate-deleveraging-in-slovenia_5jrxml3x8vq0-en
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Restoring the financial sector and corporate deleveraging in Slovenia
Urban Sila
Excessive credit growth, poor risk assessment and lax lending standards in the run up to the 2008 global crisis led to unsustainable debt build-up in banks and related corporates. A weak framework for the governance of largely state-owned banks is likely to have contributed to the misallocation...
  N° 1242   15 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-economic-consequences-of-an-ageing-population-in-slovenia_5jrxml4b6828-en
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The economic consequences of an ageing population in Slovenia
Peter Walkenhorst, Urban Sila
Slovenia’s population is set to age rapidly in the coming decades. This demographic trend will increasingly put pressure on already fragile public finances as age related expenditure is projected to rise by 3 percentage points of GDP by the year 2030. Ensuring debt sustainability and...
  N° 1241   15 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/raising-competitiveness-and-long-term-growth-of-the-slovenian-economy_5jrxmlcv3237-en
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Raising competitiveness and long-term growth of the Slovenian economy
Urban Sila, Nataša Jemec, Hermes Morgavi
The rapid growth after independence stopped in 2008 as the global crisis exposed important structural weaknesses. Large state involvement and rigid labour and product markets lowered productivity. Weak corporate governance and easy credit before the crisis led to high indebtedness and...
  N° 1240   23 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/luxembourg-diversifying-a-small-open-economy_5jrzxg7g2klt-en
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Luxembourg – diversifying a small open economy
Jan Strasky, Eckhard Wurzel
Developing activities in areas other than finance would help to sustain growth and deal with the declining potential output and trend productivity growth that Luxembourg’s economy is facing. Given the relatively high labour costs, Luxembourg’s future comparative advantages are likely to lie in...
  N° 1239   30 June 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/luxembourg-addressing-new-challenges-in-a-major-financial-sector_5jrzxgz5tvwj-en
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Luxembourg - addressing new challenges in a major financial sector
Eckhard Wurzel, Damien Azzopardi
Over the last two and a half decades, Luxembourg’s financial sector emerged as a leading international hub for asset management and investment funds and became a key contributor to growth. Diversification into new areas of financial asset management is continuing. However, changing financial...
  N° 1238   23 June 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/spillovers-from-the-global-productivity-frontier-and-public-policy_5js03hkvxhmr-en
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Productivity Spillovers from the Global Frontier and Public Policy
Alessandro Saia, Dan Andrews, Silvia Albrizio
For much of the second half of the twentieth century, labour productivity grew rapidly in most OECD economies, fuelled by the adoption of a large stock of unexploited existing technologies. However, the slowdown in productivity growth over the past decade underscores the idea that as economies...
  N° 1237   29 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-stabilisation-properties-of-immovable-property-taxation_5js0cqq93djg-en
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The stabilisation properties of immovable property taxation
Hansjörg Blöchliger, Balázs Égert, Bastien Alvarez, Aleksandra Paciorek
This paper contributes to the scarce literature on the macroeconomic effects of property taxes, in particular on the relationships between property taxes, house prices and the wider economy. The paper first estimates a fiscal reaction function which analysis the reaction of property tax...
  N° 1236   28 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/making-the-most-of-natural-resources-in-indonesia_5js0cqqk42ls-en
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Making the Most of Natural Resources in Indonesia
Richard Dutu
Indonesia abounds with natural resources. But the unique nature of its geography, coupled with the lack of transport infrastructure, makes their exploitation challenging. Moreover, a lack of investment, protectionism and an unwieldy regulatory environment are all inhibiting the sector from...
  N° 1235   28 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/reforming-the-pension-system-to-increase-coverage-and-equity-in-colombia_5js0cqrr97s4-en
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Reforming the pension system to increase coverage and equity in Colombia
Christine de la Maisonneuve
Colombia is one of the most unequal countries in Latin America. The high level of informality in the labour market and many characteristics of the pension system leave many elderly in poverty. Only formal-sector employees earning more than the relatively high minimum wage are covered. Linking...
  N° 1234   28 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/making-colombia-s-tax-policy-more-efficient-fair-and-green_5js0cqs9605g-en
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Making Colombia's Tax Policy More Efficient, Fair and Green
Christian Daude, Sarah Perret, Bert Brys
Tax revenues at 20% of GDP remain low compared to other Latin American countries and the OECD average and tax evasion is pervasive. Lower oil revenues and the expiration of a number of taxes are putting strains on the budget at a time when social and development spending needs are rising. Heavy...
  N° 1233   28 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/skills-and-labour-market-performance-in-sweden_5js0cqvnzx9v-en
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Skills and labour market performance in Sweden
Margherita Bussi, Jon Kristian Pareliussen
Both educational attainment and skills, as measured in the OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), are high in Sweden. They are not perfect substitutes, but both are to some degree necessary for successfully integrating in the Swedish labour market. This paper describes the distribution of...
  N° 1232   28 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/skills-and-inclusive-growth-in-sweden_5js1gmp403q2-en
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Skills and Inclusive Growth in Sweden
Jon Kristian Pareliussen, Margherita Bussi, Christophe André, Vincent Koen
A highly skilled workforce is crucial to sustain competitiveness and contain the rise in income inequality. Recent surveys of adult skills and educational performance suggest that younger cohorts are doing less well than their predecessors. Many immigrants struggle both in school and in the...
  N° 1231   28 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/incorporating-anchored-inflation-expectations-in-the-phillips-curve-and-in-the-derivation-of-oecd-measures-of-equilibrium-unemployment_5js1gmq551wd-en
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Incorporating Anchored Inflation Expectations in the Phillips Curve and in the Derivation of OECD Measures of Equilibrium Unemployment
Elena Rusticelli, David Turner, Maria Chiara Cavalleri
Inflation has become much less sensitive to movements in unemployment in recent decades. A common explanation for this change is that inflation expectations have become better anchored as a consequence of credible inflation targeting by central banks. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, the...
  N° 1230   03 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/macroeconomic-uncertainties-prudent-debt-targets-and-fiscal-rules_5jrxv0bf2vmx-en
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Macroeconomic uncertainties, prudent debt targets and fiscal rules
Falilou Fall, Jean-Marc Fournier
The sharp rise in debt experienced by most OECD countries raises questions about the prudent debt level countries should target. It also raises questions about the fiscal frameworks needed to reach them and to accommodate cyclical fluctuations along the path towards a prudent debt target. The...
  N° 1229   03 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/limits-to-government-debt-sustainability_5jrxv0fctk7j-en
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Limits to government debt sustainability
Jean-Marc Fournier, Falilou Fall
The recent euro area sovereign debt crisis has shown the importance of market reactions for the sustainability of debt. The objective of this paper is to calculate endogenous government debt limits given the markets assessment of the probability to default. The estimated primary balance...
  N° 1228   03 July 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/government-debt-indicators_5jrxv0ftbff2-en
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Government debt indicators
Debra Bloch, Falilou Fall
There is no single "best" indicator for analysing general government debt. This paper examines the various issues in defining and measuring debt, and explores other data which could be useful, both within and beyond the general government debt concept, to better track and analyse fiscal risks...
  N° 1226   17 June 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/household-finance-and-income-inequality-in-the-euro-area_5js04v5wh9zs-en
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Household finance and income inequality in the euro area
Oliver Denk, Alexandre Cazenave-Lacroutz
The size and composition of assets and liabilities of households differ vastly across the income distribution in euro area countries. This paper shows that differences between income groups in household finance on both sides of the balance sheet contribute to income inequality. The distribution...
  N° 1225   17 June 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/financial-sector-pay-and-labour-income-inequality_5js04v5wjw9p-en
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Financial sector pay and labour income inequality
Oliver Denk
Public questioning about the role of finance has been fuelled by the perception that financial sector pay is an important factor behind high economic inequalities. This paper is the first to provide a comprehensive look at the level of earnings in finance and the implications for labour income...
  N° 1224   17 June 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/finance-and-income-inequality-in-oecd-countries_5js04v5jm2hl-en
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Finance and income inequality in OECD countries
Oliver Denk, Boris Cournède
Using data from OECD countries over the past three decades, this paper shows that financial expansion has fuelled greater income inequality. Higher levels of credit intermediation and stock markets are both related with a more unequal distribution of income. Greater income inequality may not...
  N° 1223   17 June 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/finance-and-economic-growth-in-oecd-and-g20-countries_5js04v8z0m38-en
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Finance and economic growth in OECD and G20 countries
Boris Cournède, Oliver Denk
This paper shows that finance has been a key ingredient of long-term economic growth in OECD and G20 countries over the past half-century, but that there can be too much finance. The evidence indicates that at current levels of household and business credit further expansion slows rather than...
  N° 1222   21 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/what-impedes-household-investment-in-energy-efficiency-and-renewable-energy_5js1j15g2f8n-en
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What Impedes Household Investment in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy?
Nadia Ameli, Nicola Brandt
Energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies provide important opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, households fail to take up many clean energy investments that are cost-effective. This paper reviews different explanations for apparent underinvestment in energy...
  N° 1221   22 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/recent-trends-in-productivity-in-china_5js1j15rj5zt-en
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Recent trends in productivity in China
Margit Molnar, Thomas Chalaux
The Chinese economy has been undergoing fundamental structural changes since the start of reforms in 1978. An increasing number of farmers first got engaged in off-farm activities and then started to migrate to cities in the 1990s in search of jobs. Such movement of labour from less to more...
  N° 1220   22 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/assessing-china-s-skills-gap-and-inequalities-in-education_5js1j1805czs-en
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Assessing China's skills gap and inequalities in education
Margit Molnar, Boqing Wang, Ruidong Gao
In recent years, many tertiary graduates have had difficulties finding a job, while factories have been struggling to recruit workers. Notwithstanding rapidly increasing education attainment, graduates’ skills do not seem to match those demanded by the market. Moreover, structural changes in...
  N° 1219   22 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/providing-the-right-skills-to-all-in-china_5js1j18g4tlx-en
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Providing the right skills to all in China
Margit Molnar, Vincent Koen
China has made impressive strides in education in recent decades, even though the accumulation of human capital has lagged behind that of physical capital. Going forward, access to and quality of education will be key to sustain economic convergence with the most advanced economies and to...
  N° 1218   22 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/agricultural-reforms-and-bridging-the-gap-for-rural-china_5js1j18znzs4-en
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Agricultural reforms and bridging the gap for rural China
Ben Westmore
Urbanisation will continue in China, with the government planning to grant urban residential status to an additional 100 million rural workers by 2020. While this process is transforming the urban economy, the rural economy is also undergoing substantial structural change. Government policy...
  N° 1217   22 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/a-snapshot-of-china-s-service-sector_5js1j19lhbkl-en
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A Snapshot of China's Service Sector
Margit Molnar, Wei Wang
The share of the tertiary sector in China’s value added has increased steadily, overtaking the share of the secondary sector in 2013. With increasing incomes, the share of services is expected to grow further as at higher incomes a larger share of income is spent on services. In addition to...
  N° 1216   07 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/does-the-post-crisis-weakness-of-global-trade-solely-reflect-weak-demand_5js1qvnff3hk-en
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Does the Post-Crisis Weakness of Global Trade Solely Reflect Weak Demand?
Patrice Ollivaud, Cyrille Schwellnus
Global trade growth over the past few years has appeared extraordinarily weak, even in relation to weak global GDP growth. This paper shows that the apparent breakdown in the relationship between global trade and global GDP growth is largely explained by two factors: an inappropriate...
  N° 1215   07 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/estonia_5js1qvnqwcbt-en
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Andreas Kappeler
Estonia can revitalise productivity growth and reap more benefits from its openness. Productivity is relatively low in manufacturing and in large firms, as the manufacturing sector focuses on low-technology goods exports to only a small number of destinations. The economic impact of the...
  N° 1214   07 May 2014 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/estonia_5js1qvqqmm48-en
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Andrés Fuentes Hutfilter
Labour input in Estonia remains lower than before the crisis. Skill mismatches between workers and jobs contribute to structural unemployment and emigration, notably among young, employed workers, has reduced labour supply. Although the government has lowered labour taxes and further reductions...
  N° 1213   07 May 2015 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-czech-labour-market_5js1qvs5c1vb-en
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The Czech Labour Market
Sónia Araújo, Petr Maleček
The Czech labour market has undergone significant changes as a consequence of economic restructuring. This paper analyses these changes, highlighting both the impact of the recent economic crisis and some of the longer-run determinants of the Czech labour market. The higher share of tertiary...
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