Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific

English
Frequency
Annual
ISSN: 
2412-0979 (online)
http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/91ce97b3-en
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The Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific monitors regional progress, provides cutting-edge analyses and guides policy discussion on the current and emerging socio-economic issues and policy challenges to support inclusive and sustainable development in the region. Since 1957, the Survey has also contained a study or studies focusing on a significant aspect or challenge relevant to the economies of Asia and the Pacific region.
 
Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 1989

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English
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Author(s):
ESCAP
31 Dec 1989
Pages:
180
ISBN:
9789210599030 (PDF)
http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/56df9e8d-en

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This latest edition of the Survey analyzes current economic and social developments in the region against the background of events in the world economy. It also focuses on the serios problems of growth and transformation of the area's least developed and Pacific Island developing economies.

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  • Foreword

    This is the forty-third Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific. Part one is devoted to an analysis of current economic and social developments in the region against the background of events in the world economy. Part two focuses on the serious problems of growth and transformation in the region’s least developed and Pacific island developing economies in the context of the Commission’s continuing theme topic in 1990, “Restructuring the developing ESCAP economies in the 1990s.”

  • Explanatory notes

    The term “ESCAP region” is used in the present issue of the Survey to include Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, China, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Cook Islands, Democratic Kampuchea, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Guam, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Kiribati, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, New Zealand, Niue, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Republic of Palau, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Viet Nam. The term “developing ESCAP region” excludes Australia, Japan and New Zealand.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Patterns of economic growth and structural transformation in the least developed and Pacific island countries of the ESCAP region: Implications for development policy and planning for the 1990s

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    • The initial conditions of growth and structural transformation

      The influences that bear upon structural transformation as an integral element in the economic development process have long been emphasized, even if only implicitly, in the choice of topics for special study in part two of the annual ESCAP Survey. In recent years these have included fiscal policy, international commodity trade, trade policies, financing development and human resources development. Against the background of the profound structural changes that have occurred over the past two decades in many developing economies of the ESCAP region, the Commission chose “Restructuring the developing economies of Asia and the Pacific in the 1990s” as the theme topic of its forty-fifth session.

    • Growth and transformation process in the Asian least developed countries

      The macro-economic performance of the Asian least developed countries exhibits great diversity, and, apart from Afghanistan, none of these countries experienced a negative growth trend, as have some heavily indebted countries of Latin America or sub-Saharan Africa. The small countries of Bhutan and Maldives achieved an impressive growth rate during the period 1980-1988, though from a narrow production base; they were the only least developed countries in the ESCAP region to have exceeded the average growth target of 7.2 per cent per annum envisaged in the Substantial New Programme of Action for the 1980s for the Least Developed Countries. During the same period Nepal’s economy experienced a sharp upswing from the modest expansion registered in the previous decade. However, the larger countries (Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar) registered a deceleration in economic growth in the 1980s. Generally, the agricultural sector remained dominant (except in Maldives) although the slow increase in output, of food grains in particular, relative to population growth, had adverse implications for non-agricultural activities in several Asian least developed countries.

    • Growth and transformation process in the Pacific island economies

      The available statistical data suggest that the pace of economic expansion in most of the Pacific island subregion during the past two decades or so has been rather modest, with a general decline in the standard of living in a large part of the subregion being witnessed in the 1980s. Growth has been accompanied by considerable fluctuations, particularly in several large island countries where strong expansion in domestic production in the first half of the 1970s was followed by much lower growth rates on the average during the early 1980s, and then by some recovery more recently. With few exceptions, domestic output in the small islands and atolls has tended to stagnate or increased only marginally.

    • Selected issues in the growth and transformation process
    • Policies for sustainable growth

      The least developed and Pacific island countries of the ESCAP region have had an unpromising record of growth. Although some gain in per capita income has been achieved in many countries during the 1980s, the rate of growth is too slow to be perceptible. Even more serious is the fact that in most of these countries there are increasing risks to the sustainability of the growth process. These risks arise principally from three sources: deterioration of the environment, population growth, increasing poverty and deprivation of basic needs and social services. While some of these risks could be avoided by undertaking measures within the limited resources available and at the current levels of per capita income, increasing welfare levels on a sustainable basis would require the acceleration of growth to overcome these constraints. Moreover, acceleration of growth would greatly help in ending the isolation of these economies from the mainstream of regional and global development, which itself is as much a cause as an effect of their continued stagnation.

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