Asia-Pacific Development Journal

Frequency
Semiannual
ISSN: 
2411-9873 (online)
http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/cb961558-en
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The Asia-Pacific Development Journal (APDJ) is published twice a year by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. The primary objective of the APDJ is to provide a platform for the exchange of knowledge, experience, ideas, information and data on all aspects of economic and social development issues and concerns facing the region and aims to stimulate policy debate and assist policy formulation. The APDJ provides a scholarly means for bringing together research work by eminent social scientists and development practitioners from the region and beyond for use by a variety of stakeholders. The Journal aims to stimulate policy debate and assist policy formulation in the region.
 

Volume 19, Issue 1 You do not have access to this content

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29 Aug 2012
ISBN:
9789210557122 (PDF)
http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/3e76e58c-en

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  29 Aug 2012
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/a70eee48-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/the-economic-relations-of-china-and-india-with-pakistan-a-comparative-analysis_a70eee48-en
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The economic relations of China and India with Pakistan: a comparative analysis
Pravakar Sahoo
In recent years China has taken several steps to improve trade and investment relations with Pakistan, including, among others, the signing of a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) in 2006. Trade between the two countries has increased manifold, which, in turn, has resulted in a huge gap between the amount of trade China engages in with Pakistan compared with India. This slowing of India-Pakistan economic relations vis-à-vis China-Pakistan coupled with strained and uncertain political relations is a cause for concern. In this context, the present study examines trade and investment relations between China and Pakistan and analyses factors that have led to the growing presence of China in Pakistan vis-à-vis India. India has lost out to China in many important industries due to non-tariff barriers and non-economic factors. In addition, China scores over India in scale economies, price competitiveness and trade complementarity.
  29 Aug 2012
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/an-overview-of-access-to-and-inequality-in-the-education-system-of-viet-nam_57405f5e-en
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An overview of access to and inequality in the education system of Viet Nam
Vu Hoang Linh
This paper studies trends in education in Viet Nam in the 2000s. It focuses on access to education, inequality in the education system and education financing and provides an assessment of the effectiveness of educational activities supported by public spending. The first part of the study presents an overview of the education system in Viet Nam and the reform process of the public provision of education services. The next section focuses on access and inequality in education in Viet Nam, analysing disparities among different population groups and between urban and rural population groups, women and men, ethnic minorities and the ethnic majority and poor and non-poor households. The following section covers the issue of education financing in Viet Nam. The study assesses the trend in family contributions to children’s education over time and whether education is a burden on the poor. A model to assess the determinant to lower-secondary, upper-secondary and tertiary enrolments was applied in order to find the factors influencing enrolments. Finally, in the conclusion, we summarize our findings and propose some policy implications for further reforming the country’s education system with a view to enhancing accessibility and making it more equitable.
  29 Aug 2012
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/the-future-of-financial-liberalization-in-south-asia_81ba4404-en
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The future of financial liberalization in South Asia
Ashima Goyal
This paper overviews financial liberalization in three South Asian countries — Bangladesh, India and Pakistan — in order to derive lessons for future reforms. It investigates how freeing domestic financial markets, improving capital account convertibility, and restructuring regulations have impacted the process of financial liberalization in South Asia. The paper shows that the capital account was most liberalized in Pakistan, and that Bangladesh had the least market development of the three countries under consideration. The study also reveals that of the two similar-sized countries (i.e. Bangladesh and Pakistan), Pakistan had experienced several financial crises that had required “external rescue”. Bangladesh, in contrast, needed external rescue only once. India did better than Pakistan and Bangladesh, most likely because it followed a strategic plan according to which full capital account liberalization followed the deepening of domestic markets and improvements to government finances. The experience of the global crisis validated the Indian strategy and demonstrated that foreign entry, while beneficial, cannot resolve all issues. We conclude that deepening domestic markets and better domestic and international regulation are necessary prerequisites for full convertibility, and that these preconditions will be best met if future liberalization is adapted to domestic needs such as financial inclusion, infrastructure finance, and market deepening.
  29 Aug 2012
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/performance-of-financial-institutions-in-bhutan_6a15f76c-en
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Performance of financial institutions in Bhutan
Dil Bahadur Rahut, Iván Velásquez Castellanos, Pravakar Sahoo
Bhutan is a small landlocked country in South Asia, located in the eastern Himalayas, and bordered by India and China. With a population of about 687,000, the country has a small economy that is also fragile. Nevertheless, its banking system plays an essential role in the growth and development of the country. This paper analyses the financial performance, the development and growth of bank and non-bank financial institutions of Bhutan for the period 1999-2008 using both traditional and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The DEA analysis shows that the country’s financial institutions are efficient, with the Bhutan National Bank being the most efficient. Overall, the paper finds that the return on equity (ROE) of the financial institutions in Bhutan are comparable to that of international banks and the development of the financial sector in Bhutan has contributed to the growth of the Bhutanese economy.
  29 Aug 2012
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/eb276182-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/the-challenges-of-implementing-millennium-development-goal-target-7d-in-pacific-island-towns-and-cities_eb276182-en
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The challenges of implementing Millennium Development Goal target 7D in Pacific island towns and cities
Paul Jones
In the Pacific island region, the progress towards achieving the global Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target 7D, improving the lives of a hundred million slum dwellers, is fraught with many challenges. Out of all the MDG targets, minimal support has been provided to improving the quality of life of residents living in squatter and informal settlements in Pacific towns and cities. In this context, this paper seeks to understand and explain why MDG target 7D and the broader urban sector in the Pacific island region is marginalized. The paper examines the state of squatter and informal settlement growth in Pacific towns and cities, and explores the reasons as to why there is a lack of interest in addressing the plight of squatter and informal settlement dwellers at the Pacific country, regional and development partner levels. The paper calls for renewed action in elevating MDG 7D onto the Pacific island region and national development agendas.
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