Transnational Organized Crime in East Asia and the Pacific

Transnational Organized Crime in East Asia and the Pacific

A Threat Assessment You do not have access to this content

English
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/4bf21a0f-en.pdf
  • PDF
  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/drugs-crime-and-terrorism/transnational-organized-crime-in-east-asia-and-the-pacific_4bf21a0f-en
  • READ
Author(s):
UNODC
31 Dec 2013
Pages:
192
ISBN:
9789210541640 (PDF)
http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/4bf21a0f-en

Hide / Show Abstract

This regional assessment is broadly focused on transnational organized crime (including drug trafficking) issues and the linkages with development, governance and security in East Asia and the Pacific. This Report is intended to provide a more comprehensive and nuanced picture of contraband flows, criminal markets and their political, social and economic impacts on the regions in question. It will be a means to convene strategic dialogue on emerging transnational organized crime threats, and the recommendation it yields will be built back into policy analysis and programme development throughout the United Nations System, including at the regional and country levels.
loader image

Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Table of Contents

  • Mark Click to Access
  • Abbreviations
  • Executive summary
    East Asia and the Pacific have experienced rapid economic and social changes during the past few decades and faced the considerable regulation challenges these changes create for public authorities. This report takes a look at the manner in which criminal enterprises have developed alongside legitimate commerce in recent years. Drawing on official statistics, academic studies, and interviews with law enforcement officials, it attempts to outline something about the mechanics of illicit trade: the how, where, when, who, and why of selected contraband markets affecting the region. It also endeavours to give the best reading of the available data on the size of these markets. Though the list of contraband markets discussed is not comprehensive and it is impossible to quantify the value of these markets with any precision, these estimates are offered to prompt public debate on areas of great public policy significance.
  • Introduction: Fighting transnational organized crime
    This report is one of a series of transnational organized crime threat assessments UNODC has carried out in the framework of its regional programme approach. Like the rest of the world, East Asia and the Pacific has experienced rapid economic and social change during the past few decades and faces considerable regulatory challenges posed by this change. This report reviews the manner in which criminal enterprises have developed alongside legitimate commerce in recent years. Drawing on official statistics, academic studies, and interviews with law enforcement officials, it attempts to outline the mechanics of trade: the how, where, when, who, and why of the contraband markets affecting the region. It also endeavours to give the best reading of the available data on the size of selected markets. Though the list of contraband markets discussed is not comprehensive and it is impossible to quantify the value of these markets with any precision, these estimates are offered to prompt public debate on areas of great public policy significance.
  • Smuggling of migrants and labour trafficking within the Greater Mekong Sub-Region
    This chapter deals with two areas of crime usually regarded as distinct: the trafficking of labourers and the smuggling of migrants. In common parlance, the words “trafficking” and “smuggling” are often interchanged, but they are different processes. For this reason, when the international community designed the UN convention on transnational organized crime, the need to prohibit two independent offences was recognized. “Trafficking” defines conscious acts that lead to and create situations in which people are forced to work against their will, while “smuggling” is the act of assisting irregular migration, motivated by material or financial gain.
  • Trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation within the Greater Mekong Sub-Region
    Prostitution is found everywhere, but there is a smaller subset of countries whose markets have the power to attract participants, both clients and sex workers, from neighbouring countries and beyond. When there are not enough sex workers to keep up with demand, those profiting from the trade may import labour by deception and by force.
  • Migrant smuggling from East and Southeast Asia to the United States Asia to the United States and the European Union
    Due to the prominence of China and Viet Nam as source countries typifying these flows, this chapter will focus almost exclusively on these two states.
  • Migrant smuggling from South and West Asia through Southeast Asia to Australia and Canada
    The dynamics behind the smuggling of migrants from the Middle East as well as West and South Asia are complex because a large proportion of smuggled migrants are either refugees or intend to claim asylum upon reaching their destination. Consequently, the smuggling of asylum-seekers presents particular policy challenges for destination countries, such as Australia and Canada. On the one hand, such destination countries need to maintain sovereign control over their borders and manage the flow of irregular migrants. On the other hand, these countries are also obliged, through their international commitments, to respect the rights of asylum-seekers and protect refugees.
  • Trafficking of opiates from Myanmar and Afghanistan into East Asia and the Pacific
    A century ago, the world confronted the single largest drug problem ever to have been recorded: Chinese opium addiction. By a variety of means, this problem was almost entirely resolved by the middle of the 20th Century.” In recent years, unfortunately, there has been a resurgence of opiate use in China. Opium in still consumed, but the main opiate problem in the 21st century involves the more refined form of the drug: heroin.
  • Trafficking of methamphetamines from Myanmar and China to the region
    East Asia and the Pacific have a long history with methamphetamine. It was first synthesized in Japan, and it became available over-the-counter throughout the region in the 1950s and 1960s. When the sale of the pharmaceutical was suspended, a street version known as yaba or “crazy medicine” began to appear. The popularity of yaba has waxed and waned over the years, but by the late 1980s the illicit manufacture and use of yaba was expanding significantly in the region. This history may explain why consumption of pill-form methamphetamine retains its popularity in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand, more so than in other places around the world.
  • The illegal wildlife trade in East Asia and the Pacific
    The harvesting of natural resources is basic to every day human life. The global exchange of wild plants and animals provides us with food, pharmaceuticals, building materials, decorative objects, clothing, cultural and religious items, and pets. In 2008, the combined global value of legally traded commodities derived from wild plants and animals was approximately US$24.5 billion.
  • Illicit trade in wood-based products from the region to the world
    Economic growth and globalization have drawn immense amounts of resources from rural East Asia and the Pacific. Among these are wood-based products, including timber and paper. Since 2005, the annual global trade in wood-based products measures around 1.3 billion cubic meters, with an import value of around US$350 billion per year.1 About half (45%) of the value of the trade is in timber products (logs, plywood and furniture) and the remainder in paper products (wood chips, pulp and paper).
  • Illicit trade in electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) from the world to the region
    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) is the fastest growing waste stream in the world. Globally, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimates that up to 50 million tons of e-waste is generated every year, with only 10% of it being recycled.
  • Illicit trade in ozone-depleting substances (ODS) from East Asia to the world
    All life depends on the ozone layer to shield the planet from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the 1980s, global concern over the thinning of the ozone layer, caused by emissions of a range of chemical gases, led to the signing of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. This landmark multilateral environmental agreement regulates the gradual phase-out of ozone-depleting substances (ODS). These are principally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) (which are mainly used for refrigeration and air-conditioning), halons (used for fire-fighting) and methyl bromide (used as a crop fumigant).
  • Counterfeit consumer goods from East Asia to the United States and the European Union
    In today’s fast-paced, globalized world, a significant share of manufactured goods are produced though a decentralized process, making use of a variety of specialized subcontractors. As a result, any given product can be produced by a series of collaborators, and a large number of people can access technical specifications, either directly or through reverse engineering.
  • Fraudulent essential medicines from East Asia to Southeast Asia and Africa
    This chapter refers to fraudulent medicines, not counterfeit medicines, and this choice of terminology is important. “Counterfeit” is often used to refer to falsely-branded or unlicensed products, where the crime involved is intellectual property theft. In contrast, the act of deceiving buyers as to the content of what they are buying is fraud. This includes misbranding, but is broader, and – crucially – encompasses products that do not contain what they purport to contain.
  • Key issues and implications for response
  • Bibliography
  • Add to Marked List