United Nations Disarmament Yearbook

English
ISSN: 
2412-1193 (online)
http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/51acdf4b-en
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This publication has been a rich source of historical knowledge on developments, trends and achievements of multilateral disarmament for more than 30 years. In early spring of each year, Part I of the Yearbook is published containing an annual compilation of texts and statistics on disarmament-related resolutions and decisions of the General Assembly. In early Autumn, Part II is published presenting the main topics of multilateral consideration during the year, along with a convenient issues-oriented timeline.
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United Nations and Disarmament 1945-1970

United Nations and Disarmament 1945-1970 You do not have access to this content

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Author(s):
UNODA
31 Dec 1970
Pages:
529
ISBN:
9789210579780 (PDF)
http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/8c81b842-en

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The United Nations and Disarmament 1945-1970 compiles the disarmament resolutions and decisions of the General Assembly, the voting patterns in the General Assembly and the First Committee report and dates of their adoption.
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  • Introduction: Evolution of machinery and approaches
    The founding members of the United Nations, meeting in San Francisco on 26 June 1945 to sign the Charter, solemnly committed themselves to the purposes and principles of the Organization, the primary purpose being “to maintain international peace and security” (Article 1). In order to promote this purpose "with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources” (Article 26), they conferred specific responsibilities in connexion with disarmament and the regulation of armaments on the Security Council and the General Assembly.
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Initial efforts: 1946-1950

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    • The atomic energy commission
      When the first session of the General Assembly reconvened in New York in the latter part of 1946, it took up, on the initiative of the Soviet Union, the question of the general regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces. The Soviet Union proposed^ the establishment of two commissions : one '‘for the control of the execution of the decision regarding the reduction of armaments'’ and the other ‘‘for the control of the execution of the decision regarding the prohibition of the use of atomic energy for military purposes” The prohibition of the production and use of atomic weapons was proposed as the first step of a programme for general disarmament.
    • The commission for conventional armaments
      When the first session of the General Assembly reconvened in New York in the latter part of 1946, it took up, on the initiative of the Soviet Union, the question of the general regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces. The Soviet Union proposed the establishment of two commissions : one “for the control of the execution of the decision regarding the reduction of armaments” and the other “for the control of the execution of the decision regarding the prohibition of the use of atomic energy for military purposes” The prohibition of the production and use of atomic weapons was proposed as the first step of a programme for general disarmament.
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts General disarmament: 1951-1970

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    • Regulation, limitation and balanced reduction of all armed forces and all armaments, 1951-1958
      The impassein the two commissions by 1950 was an important factor in bringing about their consolidation into a single Disarmament Commission. The period of 1950-1951 was described by the Secretary-General as a time of “serious danger to the peace of the world and to the continued existence of the Organization”.! The work of the United Nations was affected by the Korean War and by a stalemate on many outstanding post-war issues.
    • General and complete disarmament, 1959-1970
      To wards the end of 1959, decisions were taken both within and outside the Organization leading to the resumption of negotiations on disarmament. The General Assembly, at its fourteenth session, declared general and complete disarmament to be the basic goal of the United Nations in this field. On the eve of the Assembly’s session, the Foreign Ministers of France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States, meeting to consider the Berlin problem, decided to create a new Ten-Nation Disarmament Committee outside of but linked to the United Nations.
    • Economic and social consequences of disarmament
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Collateral measures of disarmament

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    • Collateral measures of disarmament
    • Outer space and disarmament
      Early efforts to prevent the spread of the arms race to outer space were made in the Sub-Committee of the Disarmament Commission and the General Assembly in the late 1950s.
    • The problem of the prevention of an arms race on the sea-bed
      The twenty-second session of the General Assembly, in 1967, included on its agenda, at the request of Malta, an Item entitled “Examination of the question of the reservation exclusively for peaceful purposes of the sea-bed and the ocean floor, and the subsoil thereof, underlying the high seas beyond the limits of present national jurisdiction, and the use of their resources in the interests of mankind”. The discussion of the item showed that the General Assembly's main concern was to establish an international regime over the sea-bed and the ocean floor beyond national jurisdiction, as a way of assuring that the resources on and under the sea-bed and the ocean floor would be exploited for the benefit of all countries, without impairment of the marine environment, and that those areas would not be used for military purposes.
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts The discontinuance of Nuclear Weapon tests

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    • Early initiatives, 1954-1958
      It was in 1954 that suggestions were first made that an agreement to ban the testing of nuclear weapons could be considered on its own merits, either as an independent measure or as one item in an agreement on more comprehensive forms of disarmament. In 1963, the lengthy negotiations culminated in the signing, at Moscow on 5 August, of the Treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water. Negotiations to ban underground tests continue.
    • The period of the conference on the discontinuance of Nuclear Weapon tests, 1958-1962
      The geneva conference on the Discontinuance of Nuclear Weapon Tests, composed of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States and attended by the Personal Representative of the Secretary-General, opened on 31 October 1958. The Conference ceased in January 1962 and its work was transferred, in March 1962, to a sub-committee of the Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Committee, consisting of the same three nuclear Powers.
    • The Nuclear Test Ban treaty of 1963
      In the course of 1962, both the United States and the Soviet Union conducted heavy programmes of nuclear testing in the atmosphere—the United States from April to November and the Soviet Union from August to December.
    • Efforts to achieve a comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, 1964-1970
      Underground nuclear testing by the nuclear Powers signatories of the Moscow Treaty continued after the signing of the Treaty.
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Prevention of the spread of Nuclear Weapons

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    • Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
      The earliest efforts in the united nations to draft a treaty which would insure that the newly discovered atomic energy would be used exclusively for peaceful purposes had as one aim the prevention of the spread of nuclear weapons. The dissemination of knowledge of nuclear technology, as distinct from its use for military purposes, was accelerated in the 1950’s when the United States and the Soviet Union undertook to render extensive technical assistance in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. In addition, the policies of the major Powers and their defence requirements led to the building up of military alliances and other collective defence arrangements, including in some cases the stationing of armed forces with nuclear weapons on the territory of countries which themselves did not possess nuclear weapons.
    • The conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon states
      As THE CONCEPT of an agreement on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons began to take concrete shape during 1965-1966 in the form of various treaty drafts, the countries which did not possess nuclear weapons felt that it would be useful to exchange and co-ordinate their views on the subject. At the twenty-first session of the General Assembly in 1966, Pakistan introduced a draft resolution, co-sponsored by Jamaica, Libya, Saudi Arabia and Somalia, by which the Assembly would decide to convene a conference of non-nuclear-weapon States not later than June 1967 to consider the following, and other related questions: (1) how the security of the non-nuclearweapon States could best be assured; (2) how non-nuclearweapon States might co-operate among themselves in preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons; and (3) how nuclear devices might be used for exclusively peaceful purposes. By the draft resolution, the Assembly would also request its President to set up a Preparatory Committee, to make appropriate arrangements for convening the conference. The sponsors of the draft resolution subsequently accepted amendments^ by which the conference would be convened not later than July 1968 and the proposed Preparatory Committee would be asked to consider and report to the General Assembly's twenty-second session on the question of association of nuclear States with the work of the conference.
    • Nuclear-Free zones
      The idea of nuclear-free zones has been discussed in the General Assembly and elsewhere on many occasions since 1956, and with respect to many geographical areas, including the Balkans, the Adriatic, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, the Nordic countries, Asia and the Pacific. Formal plans and proposals, however, have dealt chiefly with Central Europe, Africa and Latin America, and the last two have been the subject of resolutions of the General Assembly.
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  • Postscript
    The resolutions adopted by the General Assembly at its twenty-fourth session provided a wide basis for further endeavours and advances in the field of disarmament in 1970, the year marking the twenty-fifth anniversary of the United Nations, as well as the first year of the Disarmament Decade, declared by the General Assembly in resolution 2602 E (XXIV).
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