Development Centre Studies

OECD Development Centre

English
ISSN: 
1990-0295 (online)
ISSN: 
1563-4302 (print)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/19900295
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This series of monographs from the OECD Development Centre covers development issues generally and in some cases issues in specific countries. It  includes Angus Maddison’s books containing long-term historical estimates of GDP for various areas of the world.

Also available in French, Spanish
 
Unlocking the Potential of Youth Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries

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Unlocking the Potential of Youth Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries

From Subsistence to Performance You do not have access to this content

OECD Development Centre

English
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/4117161e.pdf
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Author(s):
OECD
09 June 2017
Pages:
76
ISBN:
9789264277830 (PDF) ;9789264277823(print)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264277830-en

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Demographic pressure and the youth bulge in the developing world pose a major employment challenge. This situation is exacerbated by insufficient job creation, scarce formal wage employment opportunities and vulnerability in the workplace. For these reasons, fostering youth entrepreneurship has gained importance in the global and national development policy agenda. This report aims to contribute to the ongoing debate on the role of youth entrepreneurship in generating employment in developing countries. It is based on the analysis of mixed labour force and enterprise surveys conducted in Côte d’Ivoire, Madagascar, Peru and Viet Nam, as well as evidence on the impact of entrepreneurship programmes. This report’s findings add to the global debate on youth entrepreneurship in three important ways. First, it constitutes an unprecedented effort to capture the real situations and multiple faces of young entrepreneurs in selected developing countries. Second, it provides new empirical evidence on the determinants of youth entrepreneurial performance. Third, it proposes a policy roadmap based on lessons learned from recent meta-analyses of the effectiveness of entrepreneurship programmes.

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  • Foreword and acknowledgements

    Demographic pressure and the youth bulge in the developing world pose a major employment challenge, which is exacerbated by insufficient job creation, scarce formal wage employment opportunities and vulnerability in the workplace. This is why fostering youth entrepreneurship has gained importance on the global and national development policy agenda: it is a way to expand employment and earning opportunities for youth. Yet only a tiny portion of youth entrepreneurs in developing countries succeed, while the vast majority are confined to subsistence activities.

  • Executive summary

    For many young people in the developing world, entrepreneurial activity is the sole entry point into the labour market and the only way out of poverty. Yet only a tiny portion of youth entrepreneurs record high performance in terms of profits and job creation. In this context, how much hope should policy makers place on entrepreneurship programmes as a solution to the youth employment challenge in developing countries?

  • Assessment and recommendations

    As many as 600 million jobs will need to be created worldwide over the next 15 years to keep employment rates at their current level. The employment challenge is particularly pressing in developing countries, where demographic pressures are often stronger, wage employment opportunities are scarce and formal job creation is insufficient to give most youth access to decent work. In this context, fostering youth entrepreneurship has gained importance on the global and national policy agendas as a way to expand employment and earning opportunities.

  • Understanding youth entrepreneurship

    Defining and measuring youth entrepreneurship is complex. There is no internationally agreed definition of youth entrepreneurship, and data gaps make it difficult to obtain reliable information on youth entrepreneurs in developing countries. This chapter focuses on definition and measurement issues and their importance for our understanding of youth entrepreneurship. In particular, it presents the operational definitions and survey data used for the empirical analysis conducted in four selected developing countries: Côte d’Ivoire, Madagascar, Peru and Viet Nam.

  • Portraits of youth entrepreneurs

    Informal and subsistence self-employed activities are the dominant form of youth entrepreneurship in developing countries. Yet only a tiny portion of youth entrepreneurs record high performance levels in terms of profits and employment generation. This chapter provides a detailed portrait of youth entrepreneurs in Côte d’Ivoire, Madagascar, Peru and Viet Nam. It shows that young entrepreneurs are numerous and are less educated than young employees. They generally enter entrepreneurship for lack of other choices, and fare worse in terms of working conditions.

  • Pathways and barriers to entrepreneurial performance

    An overwhelmingly large number of youth entrepreneurs in developing countries undertake informal and subsistence activities. How could youth move up the entrepreneurial performance ladder and turn subsistence businesses into performing ones? This central question of the report is addressed in this chapter through crosscountry and within-country regression analyses, bringing new empirical evidence for Côte d’Ivoire, Madagascar, Peru and Viet Nam.

  • The way forward: Helping youth entrepreneurs reach their potential

    Significant efforts have been deployed in recent years to promote youth entrepreneurship at the national level. Numerous countries now count on policies that support youth entrepreneurship, mainly through entrepreneurship education and skills development in the schooling system, and comprehensive packages offering multiple services such as training, financial support, business advisory services, mentoring and coaching. This chapter looks at policies and programmes that have proven to help young entrepreneurs move up the performance ladder.

  • Youth entrepreneurial characteristics by performance level
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