States of Fragility 2015

States of Fragility 2015

Meeting Post-2015 Ambitions You or your institution have access to this content

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26 Mar 2015
9789264233485 (EPUB) ; 9789264227699 (PDF) ;9789264221789(print)

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This 2015 OECD report on fragility contributes to the broader debate to define and implement post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It points out that addressing fragility in the new framework will be crucial if strides in reducing poverty are to be made. It argues in favour of proposed SDG 16 – promoting peaceful and inclusive societies – which aims to reduce violence of all forms.

The 2015 report differs markedly from previous editions as it seeks to present a new understanding of fragility beyond fragile states. It assesses fragility as an issue of universal character that can affect all countries, not only those traditionally considered "fragile" or conflict-affected. To do so, it takes three indicators related to targets of SDG 16 and two from the wider SDG framework: violence, access to justice, accountable and inclusive institutions, economic inclusion and stability, and capacities to prevent and adapt to social, economic and environmental shocks and disasters. It applies them to all countries worldwide, and identifies the 50 most vulnerable ones in all five dimensions. The group of countries most challenged on all five fronts differs little from the traditional list of fragile states and economies. Still, several middle-income countries with disproportionately high levels of crime-related violence, sub-national conflict or poor access to justice move into the spotlight.

The report concludes that making headway on the targets will require building a new portfolio of tools and interventions, and an understanding of the role the international community should and can play in assisting this process.

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  • Foreword

    The OECD’s Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD) has produced Fragile States reports since 2005. These reports explore trends and financial resource flows in fragile and conflict-affected states and economies. They respond to increasing concerns about the implications of fragility for international stability and development progress. Also, they recognise aid as being only one component of international support to fragile environments, and put it into context. The OECD remains one of only a handful of sources of aggregate data and analysis for fragile states and economies as a group. In line with the new, broader concept of fragility presented in this 2015 report, the OECD’s annual publication will now be referred to as States of Fragility.

  • Editorial

    This year has the potential to be a turning point in the history of poverty reduction. As the end of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) draws closer, we are witnessing progress given that extreme poverty has been halved worldwide, although the majority of fragile states and conflict-affected countries have not met the MDG targets. It is worthy to note that the MDG framework did not address the challenges faced by fragile and conflict-affected countries nor the context within which the MDGs were being implemented in fragile situations. It is evident that 15 years on, fragile and conflict-affected countries have been left behind. In the run-up to the Special Summit on Sustainable Development in September 2015, the UN Secretary-General’s synthesis report puts forward justice – promoting safe and peaceful societies, and strong institutions, as one of the six essential elements for delivering the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for post-2015. The proposed goal on justice and peace will be an important step in tackling the challenges faced in fragile environments.

  • Acronyms and abbreviations
  • Executive summary

    States of Fragility 2015 is published at an important time for international development co-operation. In 2015, the world’s governments will agree on a successor framework to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This framework will be more ambitious than ever, requiring in turn more urgent efforts to reduce the persistent poverty in fragile situations and strengthen the institutions that can deliver economic and social development.

  • Fragility in the post-2015 framework

    This report is published at an important time for international development co‑operation. The post-2015 development framework is likely to be much more ambitious than the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This introductory chapter outlines the progress of fragile states and economies in meeting the MDGs and the challenges that fragility poses to meeting global development ambitions in the post-2015 era. It summarises the development finances available for addressing fragility, and the steps that can be taken to better allocate and monitor finances for reducing fragility and achieving global development aspirations in the future.

  • The changing face of fragility and its implications post-2015

    This chapter addresses the first three questions:
    Question 1: How have fragile states fared in meeting the Millennium Development Goals?
    Question 2: How should fragility be assessed post-2015?
    Question 3: What obstacles does fragility pose to delivering the post-2015 agenda?

  • Taking stock of financing to address fragility

    This chapter considers where and how aid is spent and assesses global trends in supporting fragile states and economies. It discusses the following questions:
    Question 4: What sources of development finance are available to fragile countries?
    Question 5: How is aid allocated in fragile states and to reducing fragility?
    Question 6: Is security spending aligned to the security challenges, risks and vulnerabilities that contribute to fragility?

  • Moving from fragility to resilience post-2015

    This chapter addresses the following questions:
    Question 7: What opportunities exist to address fragility?
    Question 8: What should international support look like in the future in order to be fit for purpose?

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Annexes

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    • Methodology for exploring fragility and projecting progress

      There is broad consensus that fragility is dynamic and multifaceted: not all fragile states and economies face the same sets of social and institutional challenges, and they vary dramatically in the speed with which they build resilience over time. These aspects of fragility are difficult to capture in lists that present only a single snapshot in time or use a one-dimensional scale for fragility (UNDP/DIE, 2009). Accordingly, the first section of this annex presents several approaches to capturing the complexity of fragility, including:

    • Supplemental data on financial flows to fragile states and economies

      This annex elaborates on some of the findings in the main body of this report, providing additional statistical data particularly for . It also summarises supplemental data on financial flows to fragile states compared to other developing countries, provides country by country snapshots of per capita and percentage gross domestic product (GDP) flows, and provides details on the major providers of development co-operation and foreign direct investment.

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