OECD Green Growth Studies

2222-9523 (online)
2222-9515 (print)
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The OECD Green Growth Strategy aims to provide concrete recommendations and measurement tools, including indicators, to support countries’ efforts to achieve economic growth and development, while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which well-being relies. The strategy proposes a flexible policy framework that can be tailored to different country circumstances and stages of development.

Also available in French
Putting Green Growth at the Heart of Development

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05 June 2013
9789264181144 (PDF) ;9789264181120(print)

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Green growth is vital to secure a brighter, more sustainable future for developing countries. Developing countries will pay a high price for failing to tackle local and global environmental threats because they are more dependent on natural resources and are more vulnerable to resources scarcity and natural disasters.

This book presents evidence that green growth is the only way to sustain growth and development over the long-term. Green growth does not replace sustainable development, but is a means to achieve it. Green growth values natural assets, which are essential to the well-being and livelihoods of people in developing countries, and if policies are designed to respond to the needs of the poorest, green growth can contribute to poverty reduction and social equity.

Building on experience with green growth policies in developing countries and extensive consultations with developing country stakeholders, this report provides a twin-track approach with agendas for national and international action. It responds to developing country concerns about the technical challenges arising from early efforts to “go green” and documents a wealth of examples from developing countries. Green growth objectives and policies will need to be mainstreamed into every government objective and most importantly, into national budgets. Green growth policies can use untapped opportunities to boost domestic fiscal revenues and attract quality investment for years to come. International co-operation is needed to help mitigate the short-term costs that may be associated with pursuing green growth. International flows of money, trade and technology know-how is vital to encourage pursuit of green growth in developing countries.

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  • Foreword and acknowledgements

    Seven billion people inhabit the world today. By 2050, this number will rise to 9 billion, bringing with it growing demands for food, water and energy. In our increasingly resourceconstrained world, the resilience of social and environmental systems is being tested, despite growing economic wealth. Only by putting in place policies that provide for sustainable and inclusive growth can we address these challenges.

  • Abbreviations and acronyms
  • Executive summary
  • Understanding the development dimension of green growth

    Developing countries face numerous challenges that together call for an alternative model of growth that can improve quality of life in the near term, without undermining it over the long term. Green growth can address these challenges and avoid locking countries into resource-inefficient, costly and environmentally damaging infrastructure or production and consumption patterns. This chapter explains the concept of green growth and its role as a means to achieve sustainable development. It explores developing countries’ views and concerns about what green growth can deliver for their national development objectives and discusses the potential political challenges, trade-offs and short-term transitional costs of going "green".

  • Why is green growth vital for developing countries?

    Rapid growth in many developing countries and increased inequality are contributing to looming environmental challenges that threaten well-being and risk to further increase social inequality and undermine growth for future generations. Chief among these environmental challenges are rising rates of air and water pollution, unsustainable consumption of water and other natural resources, and growing vulnerability – and contribution – to global climate change. This chapter outlines the features of economic growth and development today, including related environmental risks, and describes the many benefits of achieving green growth, illustrated by numerous examples from developing countries.

  • An agenda for action on national green growth policy

    This chapter outlines an agenda for action to plan, design and implement green growth policies in developing countries. It provides many practical examples of different policy instruments and mechanisms that are being successfully used in developing countries today. Each of these tools is assessed for its economic, environmental and social implications; its uptake in developing countries; and lessons learned to inform any future scaling-up or wider use. Tools range from energy subsidy reform, payment for ecosystem services and fiscal instruments to production and procurement standards, certifications, and land tenure regulations. The chapter also reviews the type of cross-cutting policies that will be essential for mainstreaming green growth, especially policies related to investment, innovation and research and development, labour and skills development, and climate change adaptation and resilience. The chapter concludes by reviewing the institutional mechanisms and resources required to govern, develop capacity, implement, measure progress, enforce and learn from the implementation of green growth strategies.

  • International co-operation on green growth

    International co-operation on green growth

  • Measuring progress towards green growth

    The West African population is projected to double by 2050, during which time agricultural production systems will profoundly change. The WAF report highlights the main features of settlement (from a homogenised base), agriculture and food security. It also provides an analytical framework and tools to allow policies to anticipate and incorporate the coming changes. The analysis particularly focuses on population concentration and on its corollary, market development, so as to shed light on some of the regional issues ahead.

  • Gearing up for green growth across the developing world

    Measuring progress towards green growth

  • Annex - Index of developing country examples
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