OECD Development Centre Policy Insights

The Middle-Income Trap: Comparing Asian and Latin American Experiences
2077-2599 (online)
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The OECD Development Centre links OECD members with developing and emerging economies and fosters debate and discussion to seek creative policy solutions to emerging global issues and development challenges. OECD Development Centre Policy Insights is a series of policy-oriented occasional papers drawn from the Development Centre’s Work Programme. All titles are generally available in the two official languages of the OECD: English and French.
Also available in French
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Page: 1 (N° 96) , 2 (N° 46) | Next
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  N° 96   01 May 2012 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-middle-income-trap-comparing-asian-and-latin-american-experiences_5k8x7gwqsllp-en
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The Middle-Income Trap: Comparing Asian and Latin American Experiences
Anna Jankowska, Arne Nagengast, José Ramón Perea
Chinese Taipei; Hong Kong, China; Korea and Singapore (the East Asian Newly Industrialised Countries or NICs) have been successful in attaining income convergence with high-income countries while Latin American countries remain caught in the Middle-Income Trap. The East Asian NICs pursued...
  N° 95   01 Sep 2011 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-privatisation-of-infrastructure_5k8x7gwwls47-en
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The Privatisation of Infrastructure
Alexis Maingard, Laura Recuero-Virto
There is no unique model of reform for infrastructure that is equally applicable to all countries. Fixed-line privatisation has often failed due to weak economic and institutional endowments. Governments and International Financial Institutions (IFIs) should consider alternative options to...
  N° 94   01 June 2011 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/should-asean-countries-embrace-carbon-labelling-as-a-means-to-reduce-emissions_5k8x7gx01dzw-en
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Should ASEAN Countries Embrace Carbon Labelling as a Means to Reduce Emissions?
Ana Santillana
ASEAN countries should play a more active role in the international standard-setting process for carbon labelling. Fragmented, bottom-up approaches to carbon labelling may lead to a proliferation of different labelling schemes, acting as a constraint to ASEAN exports. Carbon labelling should be...
  N° 93   01 Nov 2010 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/latin-america-s-middle-sectors_5kghzxqh5lr5-en
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Latin America's Middle Sectors
Anna Pietikäinen
A strengthened social contract in Latin American countries relies on the improved quality of public services such as health and education, which would build a constituency for a broader tax base. Latin American middle-income sectors express strong support for democracy but they are critical of...
  N° 92   01 Nov 2010 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/education-policies-for-upward-social-mobility-in-latin-america_5kghzxqkln6j-en
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Education Policies for Upward Social Mobility in Latin America
Christian Daude
Income is very unequally distributed in Latin America - but so too are opportunities for upward mobility. Early childhood development is a powerful mechanism to level the social playing field. More and better secondary education is key. Better administration of schools, combining greater...
  N° 91   01 Nov 2010 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/social-protection-for-all_5kghzxqn3r0q-en
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Social Protection for All
Ángel Melguizo
Informality remains pervasive in Latin American and Caribbean labour markets. Many "middle-sectors workers" (around the middle of the income distribution) are employed informally and contribute irregularly to a public or private pension. Governments should consider extending social pensions and...
  N° 90   01 Feb 2009 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/regional-integration-in-southeast-asia_225082730565
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Regional Integration in Southeast Asia
Kensuke Tanaka
The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have created one of the most dynamic developing regions. They have unveiled the Blueprint for the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) to achieve a "single market" by 2015. More recently, the full ratification of the ASEAN...
  N° 89   01 Feb 2009 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/sovereign-debt-crises-and-early-warning-indicators_225155334371
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Sovereign Debt Crises and Early Warning Indicators
Sebastián Nieto Parra
During the 1990s and the 2000s a variety of crises affected the stability of international capital markets: from the European Monetary System crisis in 1992-93 and the emerging market crises to today’s financial crisis have been present in the arenas of capital markets. These crises stimulated...
  N° 88   01 Feb 2009 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/extracting-more-from-eiti_225162187140
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Extracting More From EITI
Dilan Ölcer, Helmut Reisen
The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI, www.eitransparency.org) aims to improve transparency and accountability by the full publication and verification of company payments and government revenues. The revenues flowing from natural resources extraction are huge. EITI is one of...
  N° 87   01 Dec 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-fallout-from-the-financial-crisis-5_228121466357
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The Fallout from the Financial Crisis (5)
Robert Zimmerman
Over the past 20 years, public attitudes towards aid in OECD countries have remained steadily positive throughout economic ups and downs. At the same time, polling data shows that voters continue to strongly support aid to developing countries, despite the financial crisis.
  N° 86   01 Dec 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-fallout-from-the-financial-crisis-4_228125237716
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The Fallout from the Financial Crisis (4)
Andrew Mold
Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been one of the principal beneficiaries of the liberalisation of capital flows over recent decades, and now constitutes the major form of capital inflow for many developing countries, including low-income ones like Chad, Mauritania, Sudan and Zambia. But...
  N° 85   01 Dec 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-fallout-from-the-financial-crisis-3_228148833688
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The Fallout from the Financial Crisis (3)
Andrew Mold, Dilan Ölcer, Annalisa Prizon
The financial crisis should give a new impetus to governments’ efforts to improve aid effectiveness. Over the last few months, the governments of OECD countries have pledged trillions of dollars in loans, guarantees, capital injections, and other assistance in their coordinated effort to prop...
  N° 84   01 Dec 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-fallout-from-the-financial-crisis-2_228156565412
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The Fallout from the Financial Crisis (2)
Annalisa Prizon
Since the credit crisis first erupted, relatively little attention has been given to the consequences of the financial crisis on low-income countries’ indebtedness. Although in recent years developing countries as a group have benefited from increasing private flows (particularly FDI and...
  N° 83   01 Dec 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-fallout-from-the-financial-crisis-1_228185114075
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The Fallout from the Financial Crisis (1)
Helmut Reisen
The contagion of the global credit crisis from the industrialised countries to the emerging markets has taken some time to develop. Then, in October 2008, it spread rapidly, afflicting all emerging markets, without any distinction or regard to their so-called "fundamentals". For believers in...
  N° 82   01 Dec 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/wikigender-initiating-dialogue-on-gender-equality_228232447034
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Wikigender: Initiating Dialogue on Gender Equality
Denis Drechsler
Have you ever wondered how many women are in paid employment compared to men? We know they get unequal wages, but just how unequal is their pay? Meanwhile, who are the managers, and what is their gender makeup? Are women and men entering the higher levels of state in equal numbers?
  N° 81   01 Oct 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/living-with-duality-fiscal-policy-and-informality-in-latin-america_228275726751
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Living with Duality: Fiscal Policy and Informality in Latin America
Juan Ramón de Laiglesia
Although hard to measure, informality is by all accounts high in Latin America: about half of the region’s working population can be considered informal. In Mexico, the only Latin American country that belongs to the OECD, up to 60 per cent of non-agricultural workers – almost 22 million people...
  N° 80   01 Oct 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/public-spending-on-education-in-latin-america_228283625282
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Public Spending on Education in Latin America
Pablo Zoido
Education is one of the most important drivers of economic growth. The benefits of education go beyond the academic, contributing to economic objectives such as growth and productivity, as well as to social goals such as health and social cohesion. In a highly competitive, globalised world...
  N° 79   01 Oct 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/taxes-in-latin-america_228308208357
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Taxes in Latin America
Barbara Castelletti
To meet pressing development challenges, Latin American states need fiscal resources. The good news is that in the last decade, favourable macroeconomic conditions and the design of better tax systems pushed up fiscal revenues in Latin America. Notably, tax revenues have increased by close to...
  N° 78   01 Oct 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/public-debt-management-and-political-cycles_228367716681
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Public Debt Management and Political Cycles
Sebastián Nieto Parra
Over the last five years, most Latin American governments have made considerable strides in managing the composition of their public debt, while reducing their foreign-currency exposure. Issuing public debt in local currency is not new for Latin America; what is new, however, is the widespread...
  N° 77   01 Oct 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/taxes-and-spending-in-latin-america_228386641421
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Taxes and Spending in Latin America
Jeff Dayton-Johnson
Latin America has not neglected fiscal policy. Since the end of the debt crisis of the 1980s, governments in the region have tightened their belts assiduously. Fiscal deficits have fallen from 11 per cent of public revenues in the 1970s and 1980s, to only 8 per cent since 2000. The year-to-year...
  N° 76   01 Sep 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/are-the-financial-markets-politically-correct_228445353710
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Are the Financial Markets Politically Correct?
Sebastián Nieto Parra, Javier Santiso
Are the financial markets politically correct? In other words, do they have preferences when it comes to political regimes or partisans? This issue has often been explored with regard to foreign direct investment (FDI) or public development aid, but rarely in relation to portfolio flows in...
  N° 75   01 Sep 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-curse-of-raw-materials_238338513586
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The Curse of Raw Materials?
Gøril Bjerkhol Havro, Javier Santiso
The "raw materials curse" is far from being an inevitability, as shown by Norway and Chile. Both examples offer valuable lessons to developing countries on how to sensibly manage mining and oil resources. Following Norway’s example, Chile could build upon its experience and become a key player...
  N° 74   01 Aug 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/a-farewell-to-policy-conditionality_238354283445
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A Farewell to Policy Conditionality?
Andrew Mold, Felix Zimmermann
The idea of local "ownership" of development policies is now popular among the donor community, but without a reduction of conditionality on aid disbursements, enhanced ownership will be difficult to achieve. While there are still strong reasons for attaching certain kinds of conditionality to...
  N° 73   01 Aug 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/a-paris-declaration-for-international-ngos_238458012147
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A Paris Declaration for International NGOs?
Dirk-Jan Koch
International NGOs want official donors to co-ordinate and harmonise their activities and to become more accountable to recipients. International NGOs are donors in their own right, and their own adherence to aid effectiveness principles leaves much to be desired. International NGOs need a...
  N° 72   01 Aug 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/en-route-to-accra_238528280357
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En Route to Accra
Helmut Reisen
New actors and instruments have increased the complexity of the international development-finance architecture Efficient aid delivery confronts challenges: multilateral duplication, mission creep and loss of leverage. Specific measures of multilaterals’ contributions to the MDGs could promote...
  N° 71   01 July 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/home-owned-and-home-grown_238584858286
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Home-owned and Home-grown
Felix Zimmermann
"Ownership" makes aid work better when recipients can choose between policy options. Governments need to encourage home-grown development strategies and free local policy debates. Policy conditions on aid don’t work.
  N° 70   01 July 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-two-faces-of-informal-employment-in-romania_238620166178
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The Two Faces of Informal Employment in Romania
Denis Drechsler, Theodora Xenogiani
Informal employment is a widespread phenomenon in Romania and a key challenge for the country’s development. Policies should target two distinct groups: those who voluntarily opt out of the formal system and those with no alternative. Transforming people’s attitudes towards the state and...
  N° 69   01 June 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/international-labour-mobility-opportunity-or-risk-for-developing-countries_238677504843
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International Labour Mobility Opportunity or Risk for Developing Countries?
Denis Drechsler
Migration can strengthen the development process in sending countries. Potential gains from migration are currently insufficiently utilised. More coherence between various policy domains – in particular related to migration, human resource development and the labour market – is a critical...
  N° 68   01 June 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/transition-globalisation-and-labour-in-the-black-sea-economic-co-operation-and-central-asian-regions_238756060020
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Transition, Globalisation and Labour in the Black Sea Economic Co-operation and Central Asian Regions
Loukas Balafoutas, Kiichiro Fukasaku
Globalisation has brought benefits to the economies in the Black Sea Economic Co-operation (BSEC) and Central Asia (CA), but compounded volatility and uncertainty associated with the transition to market economy. Labour markets have been put under pressure, as BSEC-CA countries compete on the...
  N° 67   01 June 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/households-in-transition_238813667253
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Households in Transition
Loukas Balafoutas
Households in the Black Sea Economic Co-operation (BSEC) and Central Asia (CA) regions have adopted coping strategies to withstand negative income shocks during the transition. The most common strategies include family and community support, emigration, and a wide range of activities in the...
  N° 66   01 May 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/higher-food-prices_240032517317
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Higher Food Prices
Denise Wolter
Higher food prices are likely to stay; emergency aid can only be a short-term solution. Making African agriculture a profitable business could turn a food-price curse into a blessing. African governments and donors should promote the commercialisation of food crops.
  N° 65   01 Apr 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/combating-under-five-mortality-in-africa_240058565525
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Combating Under-five Mortality in Africa
Audrey Verdier-Chouchane
Reducing under-five mortality rates in Africa by two-thirds is urgent. HIV-AIDS, malaria, lack of basic health services and conflict are hampering progress. Preventable diseases take a heavy toll on the under-fives. Preventing the deaths of children is a matter of political will.
  N° 64   01 Apr 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/africa-in-2008_240076231081
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Africa in 2008
Kenneth G. Ruffing
Growth will accelerate for net oil exporters and weaken slightly for oil importers. Inflation is rising due to increases in the price of food imports and rising oil prices. The current-account deficits of oil-importing countries are increasing.
  N° 63   01 Apr 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/more-trees-have-fallen-but-the-forest-is-still-growing_240170775000
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More Trees Have Fallen…But the Forest is Still Growing
Federica Marzo
Political and social troubles worsened in 2007, but the long term trend is positive. Progress towards democracy continues, despite some severe setbacks. Democratic institutions need to foster dialogue and social cohesion.
  N° 62   01 Apr 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/investing-in-africa-s-youth_240187805162
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Investing in Africa's Youth
Lucia Wegner
African countries face high youth unemployment and a skills shortage. Technical and vocational systems in Africa are poorly funded and managed. Skill-development strategies need to be integrated into poverty-reduction strategies and focused on sectors with promising employment prospects.
  N° 61   01 Apr 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/evaluating-the-effects-of-vocational-training-in-africa_240247084230
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Evaluating the Effects of Vocational Training in Africa
Christian Kingombe
More and better data are needed to monitor and evaluate the impact of vocational training on economic growth and poverty reduction. Labour market observatories can help align training systems to labour market needs. Analysis of youth unemployment is essential before investing in expensive...
  N° 60   01 Apr 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/private-equity_240271262764
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Private Equity
Thomas Dickinson
Private equity is the African investment story to watch. African countries have made serious efforts to attract foreign investment. Global downturn may yet put successes at risk.
  N° 59   01 Feb 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/how-to-spend-it_242445844807
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How to Spend It
Helmut Reisen
Development economics can explain both saving sources and motives that have led to the recent SWF boom, thus helping avoid investment restrictions in OECD countries. As the economics underlying funds from oil exporting countries are different from the economics of East Asian funds, so are the...
  N° 58   01 Feb 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/sovereign-development-funds_242471500022
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Sovereign Development Funds
Javier Santiso
Financial actors from developing countries are playing with other OECD financial giants as equals through their Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs). SWFs could become major actors of development finance if they chose to allocate 10 per cent of their portfolio to emerging and developing economies over...
  N° 57   01 Jan 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/from-old-donor-debt-relief-to-emerging-lenders-in-africa_242517418788
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From Old-Donor Debt Relief to Emerging Lenders in Africa
Helmut Reisen
China helps growth and debt sustainability in Africa through debt relief, infrastructure investment and higher exports. China and other emerging lenders should engage in a debt transparency initiative that considers such growth effects. This will encourage emerging lenders to co-operate with...
  N° 56   01 Jan 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/informal-employment_242543432308
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Informal Employment
Jante Parlevliet, Johannes P. Jütting, Theodora Xenogiani
Informal employment persists, even when the economy is growing. Understanding the phenomenon is necessary to "tame the beast" of informality. Coherent policies are needed to create decent jobs and provide social protection
  N° 55   01 Dec 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/africa-a-new-frontier-for-emerging-markets_242874161245
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Africa: A New Frontier for Emerging Markets?
Javier Santiso
Fast-growing African countries are attracting private equity and risk capital as never before. The conditions attracting private investors are likely to improve.
  N° 54   01 Oct 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/does-taxation-rhyme-with-democracy_243010553650
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Does Taxation Rhyme with Democracy?
Pablo Zoido
Latin America has put its faith in democracy and the market economy. Efficient, fair and equitable fiscal policy can help foster development and consolidate democracy. * This Policy Insights is based on the Latin American Economic Outlook 2008.
  N° 53   01 Oct 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/latin-america-s-asian-opportunity_242877438137
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Latin America's Asian Opportunity
Rolando Avendaño, Gøril Bjerkhol Havro
Growing trade with China and India offers new export opportunities for Latin America. Latin American countries need to invest in infrastructure and innovation. * This Policy Insights is based on the Latin American Economic Outlook 2008.
  N° 52   01 Oct 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/telecommunications-in-latin-america_243048133726
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Telecommunications in Latin America
Juan Ramón de Laiglesia
Foreign investment in telecommunications in Latin America has amounted to over $110 billion since 1990, more than for all other developing countries combined. Only one in four of the poorest Latin Americans has a telephone line; competitive markets and policies promoting access can help narrow...
  N° 51   01 Oct 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/has-pension-reform-failed-latin-america_243130732161
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Has Pension Reform Failed Latin America?
Charles Oman, Waldo Tapia
Pension reform in Latin America has helped deepen capital markets, but with mixed results in terms of increasing national savings. Private pension funds have a still untapped potential to help to improve corporate governance of the companies in which they invest.
  N° 50   01 May 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/in-favour-of-a-fund-to-stabilise-commodity-exporters-income_243340034722
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In Favour of a Fund to Stabilise Commodity Exporters' Income
Daniel Cohen, Thibault Fally, Sébastien Villemot
Poor countries will remain vulnerable to external shocks from export prices or from natural disasters for some time. Indeed, the lowest income countries have an even higher incidence of such adverse events than other developing countries and tend to suffer larger damages when they occur.
  N° 49   01 May 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/more-than-t-shirts_243347268732
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More than T-shirts
Federico Bonaglia, Andrea Goldstein
Technological change and organisational advancements have made possible the greater participation of developing country producers in international trade, in a wide range of goods and services. However, firms based in industrial countries often determine the scope for insertion and upgrading of...
  N° 48   01 May 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/private-sector-development-in-poor-countries_243368408865
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Private Sector Development in Poor Countries
Federico Bonaglia, Kiichiro Fukasaku
Private business activity, by creating and using "ideas", drives economic growth in both rich and poor countries. Creating an enabling business environment is necessary but not sufficient for fostering the private sector in poor countries. Open dialogue, transparency, accountability and...
  N° 47   01 Apr 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/africa-in-2007_243412886530
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Africa in 2007
Kenneth G. Ruffing
Growth will accelerate for net oil exporters and weaken slightly for oil importers, strengthening the trends projected in African Economic Outlook 2006. For the oil importers, moreover, inflation is moving to double-digit levels. Budget deficits in oil-importing countries appear to have...
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