OECD Development Centre Policy Briefs

Measuring Governance
2077-1681 (online)
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The OECD Development Centre links OECD members with developing and emerging economies and fosters debate and discussion to seek creative policy solutions to emerging global issues and development challenges. OECD Development Centre Policy Briefs summarise conclusions reached for policy makers.
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  N° 39   27 Oct 2010 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/measuring-governance_5km5z9nnxwxw-en
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Measuring Governance
Charles P. Oman, Christiane Arndt
The use of governance indicators, as applied to developing countries, has grown spectacularly in recent years. Following the maxim that you cannot manage what you cannot measure, international investors and official development aid agencies, together with academics and the media, have turned...
  N° 38   11 Sep 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/how-to-spend-it-commodity-and-non-commodity-sovereign-wealth-funds_228474683637
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How to Spend It: Commodity and Non-Commodity Sovereign Wealth Funds
Helmut Reisen
Sovereign wealth funds have become important players in global financial markets. But their investments have repeatedly raised concerns, such as fear of industrial espionage or geopolitical threats. This paper argues that the principal motivation for setting up SWFs should put such concerns...
  N° 37   08 Sep 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/to-benefit-from-plenty-lessons-from-chile-and-norway_238030862800
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To Benefit from Plenty: Lessons from Chile and Norway
Gøril Bjerkhol Havro, Javier Santiso
It might seem obvious discovering an asset such as oil or copper would be wonderful news for the country making the find. Yet the opposite is often true. The windfall can bring poverty, civil strife, corruption, inequality, slower growth and undemocratic practices. The phenomenon is known as...
  N° 36   01 Aug 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/making-the-most-of-aid-challenges-for-africa-s-agribusiness_238113464314
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Making the Most of Aid: Challenges for Africa's Agribusiness
Jeff Dayton-Johnson, Kiichiro Fukasaku
Aid and trade policies – in OECD countries and in developing countries – might reinforce each other to promote development, or they might be substitutes: the sign of the correlation between trade and aid flows depends on the context. East Asia’s rapid growth demonstrates the important...
  N° 35   23 July 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/building-public-awareness-of-development_240327404140
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Building Public Awareness of Development
Annette Scheunpflug, Ida McDonnell
The Millennium Development Goals, the aid effectiveness agenda, and global interdependence have contributed to more demand and a sense of urgency for greater public awareness and learning about these promises, and challenges, in OECD countries. Donors and practitioners could make greater use...
  N° 34   11 Mar 2008 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/banking-on-development-private-financial-actors-and-donors-in-developing-countries_242545377251
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Banking on Development. Private Financial Actors and Donors in Developing Countries
Javier Santiso
A large, untapped reservoir of potential partnerships between private financial institutions (banks, asset managers, private equity firms, etc.) and aid donors remains to be fully exploited. Banks, private equity and asset management firms are important parts of a broad set of private actors in...
  N° 33   01 Dec 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/new-actors-in-health-financing_185200643766
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New Actors in Health Financing
Denis Drechsler, Felix Zimmermann
With concern about how to finance the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) widespread, recent donor pledges to raise aid volumes are welcome. However, aid alone will not suffice – bringing in new actors and sources of development finance will be essential. In many developing countries, this...
  N° 32   01 Feb 2007 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/commodity-funds_036761302858
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Commodity Funds
Daniel Cohen, Thibault Fally, Sébastien Villemot
Poor countries are and will remain for some time vulnerable to external shocks, whether to export prices or from natural disasters. The lowest-income countries have a higher incidence of shocks than other developing countries and tend to suffer larger damages when shocks occur. For the poorest...
  N° 31   01 Dec 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/after-gleneagles_186548656812
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After Gleneagles
Daniel Cohen, Pierre Jacquet, Helmut Reisen
Suppose a DAC donor earmarks $1 billion of taxpayers’ money for official development assistance (ODA). The donor may use two instruments as an outright grant or in combination with a market loan to produce a concessional loan of $2 billion with a percentage grant element of 50 per cent. Many...
  N° 30   01 Oct 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/policies-for-migration-and-development_201404814435
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Policies for Migration and Development
Louka T. Katseli, Robert E.B. Lucas, Theodora Xenogiani
Managing migration has become a priority for policy makers both in developed and developing countries; it is a difficult challenge indeed. Large immigration or emigration flows relative to domestic population’s impact on almost all aspects of an economy and society: family structures, community...
  N° 29   01 Sep 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/natural-disaster-and-vulnerability_202670544086
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Natural Disaster and Vulnerability
Jeff Dayton-Johnson
The tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean on 26 December 2004, to which more than 225 000 deaths had been attributed by the United Nations’ six-month review in June 2005, elicited a worldwide humanitarian relief effort unprecedented in its scale; individuals, firms, non-governmental...
  N° 28   01 Sep 2006 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/migration-aid-and-trade_206328060646
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Migration, Aid and Trade
Jeff Dayton-Johnson, Louka T. Katseli
In November 2005, Glenys Kinnock, Co-President of the ACP EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly, reported that "there are more nurses from Malawi in Manchester than in Malawi and more doctors from Ethiopia in Chicago than Ethiopia."1 These Africans had been lured North by work permits targeted...
  N° 27   22 July 2005 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/changing-social-institutions-to-improve-the-status-of-women-in-developing-countries_518103673332
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Changing Social Institutions to Improve the Status of Women in Developing Countries
Johannes P. Jütting, Christian Morrisson
. Deeply rooted social institutions – societal norms, codes of conduct, laws and tradition – cause gender discrimination. . Religion per se does not systematically define such discrimination. All dominant religions show flexibility in interpreting the role of women in society. . The Millennium...
  N° 26   16 May 2005 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/policy-coherence-towards-east-asia_532226286123
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Policy Coherence Towards East Asia
Kiichiro Fukasaku, M. Kawai, M. G. Plummer, A. Trzeciak-Duval
OECD countries face at least five major challenges for promoting policies that are consistent with their development goals: . ensuring security and political stability; . anticipating the impacts of their macroeconomic policies on developing-country growth; . increasing both market access and...
  N° 25   15 Sep 2004 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/which-policies-can-reduce-the-cost-of-capital-in-southern-africa_566107725234
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Which Policies Can Reduce the Cost of Capital in Southern Africa ?
Martin Grandes, Nicolas Pinaud
. Lowering interest rates and, thus, the cost of borrowing in the rand zone (Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland and South Africa) is a priority to promote investment and economic growth. . Local-currency interest rates in these countries are driven by those on rand-denominated transactions. Reducing...
  N° 24   06 Apr 2004 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/innovative-approaches-to-funding-the-millennium-development-goals_580523311442
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Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals
Helmut Reisen
• Despite post-Monterrey donor initiatives, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are underfinanced. • The revenue potential, the additionality and the speed of availability of new finance sources, and their political feasibility, are of particular importance. • On these criteria, it is...
  N° 23   24 Feb 2004 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/corporate-governance-in-developing-transition-and-emerging-market-economies_604227826337
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Corporate Governance in Developing, Transition and Emerging-Market Economies
Charles Oman, Steven Fries, Willem Buiter
• Sound national systems of corporate governance are essential for all countries, including the poorest, to reap the benefits of globalisation. • "Corporate governance" comprises the institutions that govern the relationship between people who manage corporations and all others who invest...
  N° 22   18 Dec 2002 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/strengthening-participation-in-public-expenditure-management_640564834060
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Strengthening Participation in Public Expenditure Management
Jeremy Heimans
• Participation by civil society in public expenditure management promises to improve social and economic outcomes while increasing confidence in public institutions. • Participatory budgeting (PB) programmes depend on the effective engagement of three key domestic stakeholders: governments,...
  N° 21   01 Aug 2002 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/beyond-johannesburg_705865878263
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Beyond Johannesburg
Georg Caspary, David O'Connor
• Early climate-related actions should be those with a high local economic and/or environmental payoff per unit of impact on greenhouse gases. • Energy, transport and natural resource management policies can often be better designed to realise greenhouse gas reductions at little or no...
  N° 20   06 May 2002 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-new-regionalism-in-sub-saharan-africa_744208327104
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The New Regionalism in Sub-Saharan Africa
Andrea Goldstein
• Regional integration in sub-Saharan Africa is becoming a vehicle for enhancing private investment through confidence building. Setting clear and easy-to-track priorities is key to achieving these policy goals. • Regional policy harmonisation or joint infrastructure projects are needed to...
  N° 19   18 Feb 2002 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/health-education-and-poverty-reduction_764315057662
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Health, Education and Poverty Reduction
Christian Morrisson
. The poor are the principal beneficiaries of universal access to social services. . Instead of thinking in terms of supply, we need to meet the demand for services from the poor. . Policies should be judged by their outcomes rather than by the amount of resources employed. . Coherent,...
  N° 18   07 Aug 2001 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/multilateral-tariff-liberalisation-and-the-developing-countries_824730584535
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Multilateral Tariff Liberalisation and the Developing Countries
Sébastien Dessus, Kiichiro Fukasaku, Raed Safadi
• Tariffs still matter. • Full tariff liberalisation to 2010 would generate dynamic welfare gains of $1 200 billion (at 1995 prices), equivalent to 3 per cent of World GDP in 2010, from greater efficiency and higher productivity. • Developing countries stand to gain relatively more from...
  N° 17   01 Apr 1999 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/participatory-governance_888041015581
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Participatory Governance
Hartmut Schneider
• Empowerment of the poor is one ingredient in effective poverty reduction. • A demand-driven participatory approach enhances effectiveness and efficiency. • Accountability is the central lever for participatory governance. • Capacity building is necessary for making participatory governance a...
  N° 16   16 Jan 1999 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/after-the-great-asian-slump_103552636186
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After the Great Asian Slump
Helmut Reisen
• The unprecedented withdrawal of foreign private capital from Asia, more than 10 per cent of GDP in the crisis countries, confronts them with a transfer problem. Creditor governments should induce their home banks into financial rescue operations to reduce moral hazard in private-sector...
  N° 15   01 Jan 1999 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/pension-reform_056345037755
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Pension Reform
Monika Queisser
• There are benefits from Latin American pension reform, but they have been overestimated. • The approaches taken in second-generation reforms and their still early results hold lessons for OECD and non-OECD countries alike. • A partial shift to funding is feasible and can be financed in...
  N° 14   01 Apr 1997 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/biotechnology-policy-for-developing-country-agriculture_086753060303
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Biotechnology Policy for Developing Country Agriculture
Carliene Brenner
• Biotechnology offers the potential for more environmentally-friendly agriculture but the conditions for developing countries to take advantage of that potential should be created. • Policy intervention is needed to ensure that biotechnology responds to the priorities set for agriculture. •...
  N° 13   01 Oct 1996 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-political-feasibility-of-adjustment_112047535116
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The Political Feasibility of Adjustment
Christian Morrisson
In the history of adjustment, concern with the political aspects appeared only after long reflection. At the beginning of the 1980s, given the urgency of the financial crises afflicting many developing countries, the only thought was to restore macroeconomic balances, particularly the balance...
  N° 12   01 Sep 1996 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/policies-for-economic-take-off_126435112001
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Policies for Economic Take-Off
Jean-Claude Berthélemy, Aristomène Varoudakis
. Political commitment is the key ingredient needed for economic take-off and long-term growth. Poor countries will be unable to escape the vicious circle of poverty unless they and the international community join forces. . Inappropriate financial policies can lead to a decline in and poor...
  N° 11   01 June 1996 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-policy-challenges-of-globalisation-and-regionalisation_151004514681
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The Policy Challenges of Globalisation and Regionalisation
Charles Oman
• Globalisation and regionalisation tend to be mutually reinforcing. Policies must ensure that this outcome prevails, for non-OECD and OECD countries alike. • Globalisation can weaken social cohesion and States’ economic policy autonomy. • Post-taylorist "flexible" forms of organisation now...
  N° 10   01 Oct 1995 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/what-institutional-framework-for-the-informal-sector_163720661354
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What Institutional Framework for the Informal Sector?
Christian Morrisson
• Many micro-enterprises are known to the authorities, in particular because they pay taxes. • Intermediate-revenue countries impose certain standards to protect consumers. • Wages regulations are only rarely respected. • The creation and development of micro-enterprises could be assisted by...
  N° 9   01 Jan 1995 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/pension-fund-investment-from-ageing-to-emerging-markets_167164365404
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Pension Fund Investment from Ageing to Emerging Markets
Bernhard Fischer, Helmut Reisen
• The rapid ageing of populations in the rich economies can be expected to stimulate strong growth in private funded pensions, providing a massive potential of foreign finance for developing countries. • Pension managers can reap big diversification benefits by investing on the emerging stock...
  N° 8   01 Apr 1994 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-disarmament-dividend_236570240018
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The Disarmament Dividend
Jean-Claude Berthélemy, Robert S. McNamara, Somnath Sen
. In 1990-1991, worldwide military expenditure amounted to $950 billion. This bill could be reduced by the year 2000 by over $300 billion.. . Excessive military expenditure jeopardizes development prospects. . Policies to achieve transparency and to strengthen military security arrangements...
  N° 7   01 July 1993 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/employment-creation-and-development-strategy_250272230667
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Employment Creation and Development Strategy
David Turnham
. Developing countries will account for almost all the increase in the world's labour force over the next 25 years; most countries, especially in Africa, will experience very rapid labour force growth. . Labour-intensive development has been spectacularly successful in some countries and others...
  N° 6   01 Jan 1993 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/towards-sustainable-development-in-rural-africa_251402826358
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Towards Sustainable Development in Rural Africa
David Turnham
. A growing recognition of the need to delimit the role of the government, to promote the market framework, and to rely on the private sector as the engine of growth, offers the prospect of a new beginning in rural development in Africa. . Rural people must take a more dominant role, both in...
  N° 5   01 June 1992 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/trade-liberalisation_288158367171
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Trade Liberalisation
Ian Goldin, Dominique van der Mensbrugghe
• Trade barriers seriously distort patterns of international trade, allocation of resources, and economic growth. The total economic costs of the barriers are estimated to exceed $475 billion per annum • Partial reform, such as envisaged in the Uruguay Round, would yield benefits of $195...
  N° 4   15 Apr 1992 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/towards-capital-account-convertibility_332312815187
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Towards Capital Account Convertibility
Bernhard Fischer, Helmut Reisen
• Advanced developing countries are increasingly encouraged to remove existing capital controls, but mixed experiences with capital account opening caution that reform must be carefully designed to increase efficiency and growth without compromising stability • A gradual dismantling of capital...
  N° 3   02 Apr 1992 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/the-privatisation-in-developing-countries_423186135728
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The Privatisation in Developing Countries
Olivier Bouin
  N° 2   01 Apr 1992 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/managing-the-environment-in-developing-countries_480585052668
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Managing the Environment in Developing Countries
David O'Connor, David Turnham
• Environmental policy should be inspired by the recognition that the environment is everyone’s business; all social actors must be involved in environmental management • Policies that implicitly subsidize a wasteful and environmentally destructive use of resources are pervasive: reforms should...
  N° 1   01 Jan 1992 Click to Access: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/adjustment-and-equity_534374616322
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Adjustment and Equity
Christian Morrisson
• Adjustment does not necessarily increase poverty • Adjusting before a crisis reduces social costs • Refusal to adjust and the suspension of imports leads to self-centred underdevelopment, which is socially much more costly • The choice of macroeconomic stabilisation measures is important: the...
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