OECD Development Pathways

OECD Development Centre

English
ISSN: 
2308-7358 (online)
ISSN: 
2308-734X (print)
DOI: 
10.1787/23087358
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The OECD Development Pathways series helps developing and emerging economies to identify innovative policy solutions to their specific development challenges. Higher levels of well-being and more equitable and sustainable growth cannot be achieved by merely reproducing the experience of industrialised countries. For each of the countries studied, the series proposes options for action in specific policy areas and at the broader strategic level. It identifies the binding constraints to development across all sectors and proposes whole-of-government solutions.

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Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Cambodia

Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Cambodia You or your institution have access to this content

OECD Development Centre

English
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Author(s):
OECD, CDRI
26 Apr 2017
Pages:
116
ISBN:
9789264273634 (PDF) ; 9789264273726 (EPUB) ;9789264273627(print)
DOI: 
10.1787/9789264273634-en

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Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Cambodia is the result of a project carried out by the Cambodia Development Resource Institute (CDRI) and the OECD Development Centre, in collaboration with the Ministry of Interior and with support from the European Union.  The project aimed to provide policy makers with evidence on the way migration influences specific sectors – the labour market, agriculture, education and investment and financial services – and, in turn, how sectoral policies affect migration. The report addresses three dimensions of the migration cycle that have become an important part of the country's social and economic contexts: emigration, remittances and return.

The results of the empirical work confirm that even though migration contributes to the development of Cambodia, the potential of migration is not fully exploited. One explanation is that migration only appears to a very limited extent in the National Strategic Development Plan. Many policy makers in Cambodia do not sufficiently take migration into account in their respective policy areas. Cambodia therefore needs to adopt a more coherent policy agenda to do more to integrate migration into its National Strategic Development Plan, improve co-ordination mechanisms and strengthen international co-operation. This would enhance the contribution of migration to development in the country.

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  • Foreword

    Cambodia has achieved steady economic growth since 2010, averaging 7% a year. The country has also become more integrated within Southeast Asia. This has been accompanied by increasing emigration, mostly to neighbouring countries, as well as greater volumes of remittances. As the social and economic importance of migration has grown, the country has begun to place more emphasis on enhancing the links between migration and development.

  • List of acronyms and abbreviations
  • Facts and figures of Cambodia

    The land, people and electoral cycle

  • Executive summary

    Emigration is a significant and growing phenomenon for Cambodia. Between 2000 and 2015, the stock of Cambodians abroad increased by about 160%, from around half a million to 1.2 million people. Today, about 10% of Cambodians over the age of 15 plan to emigrate. Despite the country’s steady economic growth, labour market demand has not been sufficient to meet the increase in the working population, and poverty remains significant, despite encouraging signs. Many households choose migration as a strategy for improving their livelihoods.

  • Overview and policy recommendations in Cambodia

    Cambodia is missing opportunities to harness the development potential of its high rates of emigration. The Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development (IPPMD) project was conducted in Cambodia between 2013 and 2017 to explore through both quantitative and qualitative analysis the two-way relationship between migration and public policies in four key sectors – the labour market, agriculture, education, and investment and financial services. This chapter provides an overview of the project’s findings, highlighting the potential for migration in many of its dimensions (emigration, remittances and return migration) to boost development, and analysing the sectoral policies in Cambodia that will allow this to happen.

  • Cambodia's migration landscape

    Migration has been a major agent in Cambodia’s recent demographic and labour market change. Migration is not a new phenomenon, but it is becoming more dynamic, diverse and complex. As well as witnessing a marked increase in the number of emigrants, Cambodia is benefitting from increasing remittances from migration. This chapter gives a brief overview of migration in Cambodia: its drivers and impact, who the migrants are and where they have gone, and what the existing literature tells us about the impact of migration on those left behind. Finally, it lays out Cambodia’s policy and institutional framework governing migration.

  • Understanding the methodological framework used in Cambodia

    In order to provide an empirical foundation to the analysis of the links between migration and policy, the Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development (IPPMD) project used three evidence-gathering tools: household survey, community survey, and qualitative interviews with representatives of public, international and local organisations. This chapter explains how the sampling for the surveys was designed, as well as the statistical approaches used in the chapters that follow to analyse the links between migration and key policy sectors. The chapter includes a brief overview of the survey data, including differences across regions and between migrant and non-migrant households. It outlines some of the gender differences that emerged among migrants, and the reasons for leaving and returning.

  • What impacts does migration have on development in Cambodia?

    Despite improving economic and social development in recent decades, Cambodia is still challenged by limited employment opportunities in the domestic labour market and relatively low wages compared to other countries in the region. As a result, a growing number of people from rural areas – especially young people – are seeking opportunities abroad. The impacts of this migration on household and national development are not well understood. The various dimensions of migration – emigration, remittances and return migration – are likely to have both positive and negative effects on household wellbeing and key sectors of the Cambodian economy. This chapter investigates the development impacts of migration in four sectors: the labour market, agriculture, education, and investment and financial services.

  • How do sectoral policies affect migration in Cambodia?

    Sectoral policies in key areas for development, such as the labour market, agriculture, education, and financial services and investment can still affect migration decisions. The IPPMD household and community surveys incorporated a wide set of policy programmes in the four sectors to identify some clear links between sectoral policies and migration. This chapter reports on analysis of the ways in which policy programmes in these sectors in Cambodia influence people’s decision to emigrate and to send remittances.

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