Development Co-operation Report

English
Frequency :
Annual
ISSN :
2074-7721 (online)
ISSN :
2074-773X (print)
DOI :
10.1787/20747721
Hide / Show Abstract

The annual report of the Chairman of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC). It provides detailed statistics on and analysis of each member’s foreign aid programmes (offical development assistance - ODA) as well as an overview of trends and issues currently being discussed in the development community.

Also available in: French, German
 
Development Co-operation Report 2015

Latest Edition

Development Co-operation Report 2015

Making Partnerships Effective Coalitions for Action You or your institution have access to this content

English
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/dcr-2015-en/index.html
  • WEB
  • http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/4315041e.pdf
  • PDF
  • http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/432015041f1.epub
  • ePUB
  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/development-co-operation-report-2015_dcr-2015-en
  • READ
Author(s):
OECD
07 Sep 2015
Pages :
345
ISBN :
9789264235427 (HTML) ; 9789264240278 (EPUB) ; 9789264233140 (PDF) ; 9789264233126 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/dcr-2015-en

Hide / Show Abstract

With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals, the question of how to finance, implement and monitor these goals moves to the centre of the debate. Today, international development co-operation takes place in an increasingly complex environment, with an ever growing number of actors, policies and instruments involved. This complexity raises the stakes for achieving the goals, but also opens up new opportunities. Although governments will remain the key actors in the implementation of the new post-2015 goals, the role of non-state actors such as civil society, foundations and business is growing. Their association through effective partnerships will be key to the implementation of the post-2015 agenda.
The Development Co-operation Report 2015 explores the potential of networks and partnerships to create incentives for responsible action, as well as innovative, fit-for-purpose ways of co-ordinating the activities of diverse stakeholders. The report – Making Partnerships Effective Coalitions for Action – looks at a number of existing partnerships working in diverse sectors, countries and regions to draw lessons and provide practical guidance, proposing ten success factors for post-2015 partnerships. A number of leading policy makers and politicians share their insights and views.
 

loader image

Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Table of Contents

  • Mark Click to Access
  • Foreword

    The world has made great progress since the Millennium Development Goals were put in place a decade ago. Poverty has been cut in half. Illness and early deaths have been significantly reduced, particularly among women and children. Despite these achievements, huge challenges remain if we are to meet the new and ambitious set of Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. These truly universal targets involve – and depend on – all nations, leaders and peoples for their successful realisation. Likewise, we must address climate change and ensure that our actions to combat it are fully aligned with common development objectives.

  • Acronyms and abbreviations
  • Editorial

    The global development progress over the past decades has been unprecedented in human history. Extreme poverty has been halved and in the People’s Republic of China alone, more than 600 million people have been brought out of poverty. Child mortality has also been cut in half, with 17 000 fewer children dying every day. Almost all children now go to school. Children born today can expect to live for 70 years on average, 20 years longer than those born 50 years ago. They are also growing up in a world that, contrary to what many people think, is much more peaceful than ever before.

  • Executive summary

    The development efforts made by the international community over the past 60 years have had measurable impact on reducing poverty, improving human health and tackling other pressing challenges. Yet fragmented initiatives, conflicting priorities and uncoordinated approaches continue to hold back progress.

  • Infographic: Success factors for effective post-2015 partnerships

    For further information see section A framework for post-2015 partnerships builds on proven success factors.

  • Making partnerships effective coalitions for action

    The universal, transformative and inclusive agenda defined by the new Sustainable Development Goals means that the need to co-operate and work effectively is more urgent than ever. Partnerships are the way forward for effective development. This overview chapter of the Development Co-operation Report 2015 proposes a new, multi-level system of accountability to guide effective partnerships in implementing and monitoring work to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. It defines three core functions of partnerships that are central to the successful implementation of the new goals: accountability, co-ordinated action and knowledge sharing. Drawing lessons from 5 concept chapters and 11 diverse case stories of partnerships from around the world, it defines a framework for effective post-2015 coalitions for action based on 10 success factors.

  • Add to Marked List
  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts The power of partnerships for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

    • Mark Click to Access
    • The promise of partnerships in a post-2015 world

      While partnerships are generally recognised as a promising vehicle for delivering the new Sustainable Development Goals, this chapter emphasises the importance of choosing the right partnership for each challenge. For instance, broad co-operation at the global and country levels can be useful in ensuring basic needs, but public-private partnerships at the local level may be more suited for tackling issues of infrastructure. To address free-rider issues associated with biodiversity, peacekeeping or climate change, global intergovernmental negotiations continue to be the central mechanism. Not all sectors and challenges have been equally successful in galvanising the level of international co-operation necessary to achieve a focused response. Success factors for partnerships include ensuring a strong connection between global strategy and local implementation; having clear, ambitious and attainable targets; using performance-based allocation models; and ensuring that the governance structure is participatory, including representatives of all stakeholders.

    • Inclusive partnerships for effective development co-operation

      The first decade of this millennium saw consensus growing around the need to heighten the effectiveness of development co-operation. An evolving series of declarations – from the Paris Declaration to the Accra Agenda for Action and the Busan Partnership agreement – set out and reaffirmed underpinning principles and set measurable indicators of effective development. These, in turn, were endorsed and taken up by an increasingly diverse range of development partners. The process culminated in 2011 with the creation of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation: an alliance of 160 developing and developed countries, more than 45 organisations, civil society and the private sector. This chapter highlights why this Global Partnership can be part of the how of implementing and measuring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals and makes recommendations for successful partnerships post-2015.

    • Private sector partnerships for sustainable development

      The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals will require contributions from all countries and all actors: public and private. Progress will need to be made in three key areas: fragile states, inclusive and sustainable growth in middle-income countries, and domestic policies in developed countries that affect poverty reduction and sustainable production and consumption. Many of these areas imply a strong role for the private sector, through job creation, technology development and investment. However, partnerships with the private sector come with some caveats that need to be addressed. This chapter explores the role of the private sector in delivering the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, focusing on what business can do (and what it cannot do) and the role governments need to play to avoid risks and maximise potential.

    • The concept of accountability in international development co-operation

      Accountability is about setting clear goals and targets, being responsible for delivering on them and accepting potential sanctions for lack of compliance with commitments. With the growing number of stakeholders actively engaging in development co-operation, implementing accountability is becoming increasingly complex. This chapter clarifies the concept of accountability in today’s development co-operation context. It outlines its main functions: clarifying roles and responsibilities, encouraging responsible action, and building legitimacy and trust. It also discusses some areas where improvements are needed to provide objectivity, to balance the means of enforcement among partners and to ensure that key stakeholders are able to make their voices heard. It concludes with recommendations on how to design accountability mechanisms that will enhance the effectiveness of development co-operation.

    • Accountability mechanisms in development co-operation

      Development co-operation today involves many levels and actors. How can accountability be achieved in this complex environment? This chapter reviews the existing instruments and mechanisms for ensuring accountability in development co-operation, which are useful in establishing shared goals and commitments, measuring progress and creating incentives to spur behaviour change and improved performance, despite (and perhaps because of) the lack of hard enforcement mechanisms. The chapter concludes with a set of priorities for increasing the relevance and impact of the existing accountability measures in the post-2015 framework of Sustainable Development Goals.

    • Add to Marked List
  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Development partnerships in action

    • Mark Click to Access
    • The Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation

      The Global Partnership for Development Effectiveness is already helping to build a holistic, inclusive and action-oriented post-2015 development framework. From its inclusive governance structure to its role in creating a space for exchange among the full range of development actors, it is proving to be particularly effective as a transformative tool on the ground. This chapter outlines some of its practical achievements to date, which include tracking progress on the implementation of the development effectiveness principles, organising a widely attended high-level forum in Mexico, and supporting nearly 40 practical initiatives to enhance development effectiveness around the world.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Lilianne Ploumen, Dutch Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Co-operation and one of three Co-Chairs of the Global Partnership.

    • The Gates Foundation's experience with successful development partnerships

      Over the past 15 years the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has built up a wealth of experience in working through global partnerships to produce a dramatic impact on people’s lives. This chapter draws lessons from this experience, looking at partnerships – such as Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; Family Planning 2020; and Every Newborn – to identify success factors. While the co-ordinating mechanisms and governance structures of these partnerships vary, they all have certain characteristics in common: a shared sense of purpose, a unified mission, action plans, well-defined targets and agreed accountability mechanisms.

    • The International Health Partnership+

      The International Health Partnership+ is a multi-stakeholder partnership focusing on improving health in developing countries. It provides a platform for co-ordinating and aligning efforts, for sharing knowledge and for holding each other to account. The partnership has agreed on seven behaviours for effective co-operation in the health sector, building on the principles of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness; these emphasise support for national health sector strategies and the use of country systems. This chapter explores some of the strengths and challenges of the partnership, and concludes that as the development context becomes increasingly complex, its role is as relevant as ever.

    • Development partnerships in education

      While development partnerships in basic education have taken many forms, the Education for All Fast Track Initiative and its successor, the Global Partnership for Education, have best expressed the aspirations of the international community. Unlike in the health sector, these education partnerships did not initially establish a global fund. Instead, they sought to establish a compact among development co-operation providers and governments to catalyse increased contributions by both. In practice, the formation of the partnership had a long gestation period. Despite improvements in the governance arrangements and operational procedures, the question remains open whether the promise of a catalytic effect has been realised. Building on lessons learned, it is clear that partnerships after 2015 will need more funds and better evidence to deliver improved education outcomes.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Qian Tang, Assistant Director-General for Education, UNESCO.

    • Sustainable Energy for All

      Poverty and climate change are the two major challenges of our time. Sustainable energy holds huge potential for tackling these two challenges together, supporting action across all three pillars of sustainable development: economic growth, environmental protection and social progress. Energy is a development enabler for other crucial goals, such as health, gender equality, and access to food and water. The Sustainable Energy for All initiative is a unique partnership between the United Nations and the World Bank, along with a remarkable network of leaders from developing and developed country governments, the private sector, civil society, and multilateral and national financial institutions. This chapter describes how together they are catalysing action and investment to achieve three ambitious goals: ensuring universal access to modern energy services, doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency and doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Mary Robinson, President of the Mary Robinson Foundation-Climate Justice and member of the Sustainable Energy for All Advisory Board.

    • The Aid-for-Trade initiative

      The powerful developmental role of trade has been recognised by the inclusion of trade objectives – and of aid for trade – in preparatory work on the Sustainable Development Goals. Yet developing countries – especially the least developed – require help in building their trade-related capacities. This chapter describes the Aid-for-Trade initiative, launched in 2005 as a partnership to build the supply-side capacity and trade-related infrastructure of developing countries. This chapter explores the initiative’s strengths and weaknesses, concluding that ten years after its launch, it has firmly established itself in the international policy environment and remains as relevant today as when it was first launched.

    • The Effective Institutions Platform

      Effective national institutions and systems are vital for achieving sustainable development. The Effective Institutions Platform supports countries in strengthening their public sector institutions through initiatives such as the two described in this chapter. Learning Alliances on Public Sector Reform offer – to collaborative groups of institutions, practitioners and researchers – organised, hands-on opportunities to learn from each other’s experiences with the challenges, risks and pitfalls of public sector reform. Country Dialogues for Using and Strengthening Local Systems promote greater use of country systems by development co-operation providers as a means of building capacity and accountability. Together, they demonstrate practical ways in which collaborative working can have greater impact.

    • The International Dialogue on Peacebuilding and Statebuilding

      Countries affected by conflict and fragility need new ways of working that are better tailored to their specific challenges. The International Dialogue on Peacebuilding and Statebuilding was created in 2008 to bring together conflict-affected and fragile countries, international partners and civil society to catalyse successful transitions from conflict and fragility. The International Dialogue also established the New Deal for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-affected States as an innovative way of promoting development and measuring progress in these contexts. This case story reviews the achievements and challenges of both the International Dialogue and the New Deal to date.

    • The Partnership in Statistics for Development in the 21st Century (PARIS21)

      PARIS21 is an established multi-stakeholder partnership that contributes to building statistical capacity in developing countries through support for the production of high-quality and timely statistics; co-ordination among providers of development co-operation, policy makers, and data users and producers; and support for documenting, archiving and disseminating data. It also helps to forge strong alliances among key players in statistics, data and development, and has provided platforms for developing countries to make their voices heard. A data revolution will be required to achieve and track the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals in developing countries. This chapter outlines the strengths of PARIS21 in partnering with the global community to support this data revolution, as well as the challenges it faces.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Winnie Byanyima, Executive Director of Oxfam International.

    • The Grow Africa partnership

      Africa’s farming sector has great potential for generating economic growth and creating jobs, particularly for farmers, women and young people. Private sector investment is vital to drive rapid and sustainable growth in agriculture, but does so most efficiently when it is in partnership with government and development co-operation providers. This chapter describes the efforts of Grow Africa to enable countries to realise the potential of the agricultural sector. A key element of Grow Africa’s work involves incubating new public-private partnerships, as well as strengthening existing ones. This chapter highlights some successful models, as well as some lessons learned along the way.

    • Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

      The urgent need to reduce carbon emissions from forest loss prompted the international community to negotiate the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This collaborative mechanism is designed to provide incentives for developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from their forest and peatland sectors. A broad range of stakeholders – governments, multilateral organisations, civil society, indigenous groups and other forest-dependent communities, academia and the private sector – are included in all REDD+ planning and implementation processes. This chapter describes how REDD+ works and draws out some common denominators among the partnerships it promotes.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Bharrat Jagdeo, former President of Guyana.

    • Add to Marked List
  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Profiles of development co-operation providers

    • Mark Click to Access
    • Learning from experience with the Millennium Development Goals as policy and advocacy tools

      As the international community moves towards implementation of the new Sustainable Development Goals, learning from the experience of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) can help to make the new goals function as influential policy tools. Evidence shows that the global narrative around the MDGs not only increased public and political support for international development, it also resulted in the reorientation of development co-operation programmes and policies, and promoted behaviour changes within development co-operation agencies. This section looks at these changes among the members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC), drawing on a representative sample of eight DAC member countries.

    • Development Assistance Committee members' ODA performance in 2013 and 2014

      According to preliminary data, in 2014 net official development assistance (ODA) flows from member countries of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) was USD 135.2 billion, representing 0.29% of gross national income (GNI). In the past 15 years, net ODA has been rising steadily and has increased by 66% since 2000. Despite the recession in several DAC member countries which has led to reductions in their aid budgets, it is encouraging that overall levels of ODA remain high and stable.

    • Australia

      Data on private flows at market terms are not available for 2009 and those for private grants are not available for 2009 and 2013.

    • Austria

      Data on private grants are not available for 2013.

    • Belgium

      Data on private grants are not available for 2012.

    • Canada

      Canada contributes to the mobilisation of domestic resources in developing countries by supporting their tax systems. In 2013, it is estimated that Canada committed USD 42 million of its official development assistance (ODA) to tax-related activities in partner countries.

    • Czech Republic

      In 2014, the Czech Republic provided USD 209 million in net ODA (preliminary data). This represented 0.11% of gross national income (GNI) and an increase of 2.5% in real terms from 2013. The Czech Republic is committed to maintaining a gradual increase in its official development assistance (ODA) as a percentage of GNI. It is the 25th largest Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donor in terms of ODA as a percentage of GNI and in terms of volume. The grant element of total ODA was 100% in 2013. At present, data on other official flows, private grants (funds raised by non-governmental organisations and foundations) and private flows at market terms from the Czech Republic to developing countries are not available.

    • Denmark

      Data on private grants are not available for 2003.

    • European Union institutions

      The EU institutions contribute to the mobilisation of domestic resources in developing countries by supporting their tax systems. In 2013, it is estimated that they committed USD 6.6 million of their official development assistance (ODA) to tax-related activities in partner countries.

    • Finland

      Data on other official flows are not available for 2005 and 2006.

    • France

      Data on private grants are not available.

    • Germany

      Germany contributes to the mobilisation of domestic resources in developing countries by supporting their tax systems. In 2013, it is estimated that Germany committed USD 2.1 million of its official development assistance (ODA) to tax-related activities in partner countries.

    • Greece

      Data on other official flows are not available for 2003, 2005 and 2009-12; data on private grants are not available for 2013.

    • Iceland

      In 2014, Iceland delivered USD 35 million in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.21% of its gross national income (GNI) and a 3.8% decrease in real terms from 2013. Iceland is committed to achieving 0.7% ODA/GNI, and this commitment has been accompanied by an increase in ODA both in terms of volume and as a share of GNI between 2011 and 2013. Iceland is the 17th largest Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donor in terms of ODA as a percentage of GNI, and the 28th (last) donor in terms of volume. The grant element of total ODA was 100% in 2013. At present, data on other official flows, private grants (funds raised by non-governmental organisations and foundations) and private flows at market terms from Iceland to developing countries are not available.

    • Ireland

      Data on other official flows are not available; data on private flows are not available for 2012.

    • Italy

      Italy contributes to the mobilisation of domestic resources in developing countries by supporting their tax systems. In 2013, it is estimated that Italy committed USD 119 000 of its official development assistance (ODA) to tax-related activities in partner countries.

    • Japan

      Japan contributes to the mobilisation of domestic resources in developing countries by supporting their tax systems. In 2013, it is estimated that Japan committed USD 3.8 million of its official development assistance (ODA) to tax-related activities in partner countries.

    • Korea

      Korea contributes to the mobilisation of domestic resources in developing countries by supporting their tax systems. In 2013, it is estimated that Korea committed USD 9.6 million of its official development assistance (ODA) to tax-related activities in partner countries.

    • Luxembourg

      Data on other official flows and private flows at market terms are not available; data on private grants are not available from 2012.

    • Netherlands

      Data on other official flows are not available from 2007.

    • New Zealand

      New Zealand contributes to the mobilisation of domestic resources in developing countries by supporting their tax systems. In 2013, it is estimated that New Zealand committed USD 56 000 of its official development assistance (ODA) to tax-related activities in partner countries.

    • Norway

      Data on private grants are not available; data on other official flows are not available for 2011.

    • Poland

      In 2014, Poland provided USD 437 million in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.08% of gross national income (GNI) and an 8.3% decrease in real terms from 2013 due to a decrease in loans. This is the first decrease in ODA volume and as a percentage of GNI since 2010. Poland is committed to attain the 0.33% ODA/GNI ratio when political and financial conditions permit. Poland is the 28th (last) largest Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donor in terms of official development assistance (ODA) as a percentage of GNI, and the 21st largest donor by volume. At present, data on other official flows, private grants (funds raised by non-governmental organisations and foundations) and private flows at market terms from Poland to developing countries are not available.

    • Portugal

      Data on other official flows are not available for 2008-10.

    • Slovak Republic

      In 2014, the Slovak Republic provided USD 81 million in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.08% of gross national income (GNI) and a 5.1% decrease in real terms from 2013. The Slovak Republic is committed to gradually meeting ODA targets adopted at the EU level when the economy recovers. The Slovak Republic is the 27th largest Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donor in terms of ODA as a percentage of GNI, and 26th by volume. The grant element of total ODA was 100% in 2013. At present, data on other official flows, private grants (funds raised by non-governmental organisations and foundations) and private flows at market terms from the Slovak Republic to developing countries are not available.

    • Slovenia

      In 2014, Slovenia provided USD 62 million in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.13% of gross national income (GNI) and a 0.3% decrease in real terms from 2013. Slovenia is the 24th largest donor of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) in terms of official development assistance (ODA) as a percentage of GNI and the 27th donor in terms of volume. The grant element of total ODA was 100% in 2013. At present, data on other official flows, private grants (funds raised by non-governmental organisations and foundations) and private flows at market terms from Slovenia to developing countries are not available.

    • Spain

      Data on private grants available from 2012; data on other official flows are not available for 2006, 2008 and 2010.

    • Sweden

      Sweden contributes to the mobilisation of domestic resources in developing countries by supporting their tax systems. In 2013, it is estimated that Sweden committed USD 7.3 million of its official development assistance (ODA) to tax-related activities in partner countries.

    • Switzerland

      Data on other official flows are not available for 2004, 2005 and from 2007.

    • United Kingdom

      The United Kingdom contributes to the mobilisation of domestic resources in developing countries by supporting their tax systems. In 2013, it is estimated that the United Kingdom committed USD 5.5 million of its official development assistance (ODA) to tax-related activities in partner countries.

    • United States

      It promotes aid for trade to improve developing countries’ trade performance and integration into the world economy. It committed USD 3.8 billion (20% of sector-allocable ODA) to trade-related activities in 2013, a 5% decrease in real terms from 2012. The trend has been fluctuating in recent years.

    • Providers of development co-operation beyond the DAC: Trends and profiles, 

      This chapter presents information on the volume and key features of the development co-operation provided by countries that are not members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). It includes 18 providers who report to the OECD on their development co-operation programmes, as well as 9 other providers that are priority partners for the DAC. For these providers, the OECD has estimated their programme volume based on official government reports, complemented by web-based research (mainly on contributions to multilateral organisations). The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the only private funding entity reporting to the OECD, is also included in this chapter.

    • Add to Marked List
  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Annexes

    • Mark Click to Access
    • Statistical annex

      This statistical annex incorporates data submitted up to 7 November 2014. All data in this annex refer to calendar years, unless otherwise stated. The data presented reflect the DAC List as it was in 2013 (for a complete list of countries, please refer to Annex C of this report).

    • Methodological notes on the Profiles of Development Assistance Committee members

      General point: unless otherwise stated, and with the exception of data on official development assistance (ODA) allocation by sector, and ODA supporting gender equality and environment objectives (whose figures refer to commitments), all figures in the profiles refer to gross bilateral disbursements. All of the data presented in the profiles are publicly available at: www.oecd.org/dac/stats.

    • Technical notes on definitions and measurement

      The coverage of the data presented in the Development Co-operation Report has changed in recent years. The main points are as follows.

    • The concept of partnership and the evolution of the principles for effective development co-operation

      The concept of partnerships for development featured prominently in such seminal development co-operation treatises as the 1969 Pearson Commission Report and the 1980 Brandt Report. Yet it did not rise to prominence in political discourse and policy approaches within the development community until the 1990s, when the Nordic countries began to actively explore partnership models for agreeing and delivering their development co-operation.

    • Add to Marked List