Development Co-operation Report

Frequency :
Annual
ISSN :
2074-7721 (online)
ISSN :
2074-773X (print)
DOI :
10.1787/20747721
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The annual report of the Chairman of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC). It provides detailed statistics on and analysis of each member’s foreign aid programmes (offical development assistance - ODA) as well as an overview of trends and issues currently being discussed in the development community.

Also available in: French, German
 
Development Co-operation Report 2014

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Development Co-operation Report 2014

Mobilising Resources for Sustainable Development You or your institution have access to this content

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Author(s):
OECD
Publication Date :
07 Oct 2014
Pages :
355
ISBN :
9789264220751 (HTML) ; 9789264216013 (PDF) ; 9789264210912 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/dcr-2014-en

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The Development Co-operation Report (DCR) is a yearly report by the Chair of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) that addresses important challenges for the international development community and provides practical guidance and recommendations on how to tackle them. Moreover, it reports the profiles and performance of DAC development co-operation providers and presents DAC statistics on official development assistance (ODA) and private resource flows.

The Development Co-operation Report 2014: Mobilising resources for sustainable development is the second in a trilogy (2013-15) focusing on "Global Development Co-operation Post-2015: Managing Interdependence". The report provides an overview of the sources of finance available to developing countries and proposes recommendations on how to mobilise further resources. It also explores how to mobilise resources to finance the provision of global public goods: for example, to combat climate change, promote peace and security, and create a fair and equal trading system.

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    Foreword

    The OECD has been working on the definition and monitoring of official development assistance (ODA) and other official flows for development. Most recently, we have been leading global efforts to ensure that official development finance is fit-for-purpose in today’s quickly evolving development landscape: we are modernising our development finance statistical systems and revising the definition of what qualifies as ODA.

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    Acronyms and abbreviations
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    Editorial: More and better financing for development

    There is plenty of money in the world that could be used for development. Just stopping the enormous sums illegally flowing out of developing countries could provide billions of dollars for poverty reduction. Redirecting fossil fuel subsidies to renewable sources of energy would reduce the pace of climate change and more than double investments in green energy. Every child would be enrolled in school and teachers celebrated as heroes if peace entrepreneurs were able to mobilise as much money as war entrepreneurs. Money can be allocated and used much more effectively if we choose to do so.

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    Executive summary

    The Millennium Development Goals come of age in 2015, yet many development challenges remain and others are emerging. The post-2015 goals currently being discussed by the international community under the auspices of the United Nations General Assembly will integrate social, environmental and economic concerns into a single set of Sustainable Development Goals.

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    How to better mobilise resources for sustainable development

    This is an exciting, and challenging, time for the global community as the details of the post-2015 development agenda begin to crystallise. The signs are that it will be a much broader approach than the Millennium Development Goals, applying to developed and developing countries alike and embodying new concepts and ways of viewing development. Such a holistic and ambitious agenda will require financing to match. This first chapter of the Development Co-operation Report 2014 outlines the financing context and gives an overview of the many resources beyond official development assistance (ODA) that can and should be tapped and channelled to finance sustainable development. The world now faces the challenge of mobilising and directing these resources to achieve global goals while keeping ODA focused on where it can make the greatest difference. The OECD is currently working to devise new measures of development finance to reflect these major changes in the development finance landscape and to create the right incentives for ODA to be used in a smart way to mobilise additional resources to finance sustainable development.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Yun Byung-se, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea, on how Korea’s use of ODA can guide other countries in their development.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Existing sources of financing for sustainable development

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      Keeping ODA focused in a shifting world

      As the international community works towards a new global sustainable development framework to replace the Millennium Development Goals, one of the main questions is how it will be financed. The relative importance of official development assistance (ODA) is declining for many developing countries – especially middle-income ones – in comparison to other sources of external finance (low-interest loans, direct foreign investment, official export credits, private grants, remittances, etc.). This chapter argues that while 148 developing countries are eligible to receive ODA, they are not all the same in terms of their needs and relative access to ODA and other sources of external finance. By categorising these countries into five groups according to their degree of fragility and income levels, the authors find that ODA growth is slowing in those countries which need it most – fragile states and least developed countries. They call for more to be done to target ODA where it is needed most. The United Nation’s target of allocating 0.15-0.20% of gross national income as ODA to least developed countries needs to be more closely monitored. In middle-income countries, ODA can be better used for eliminating stubborn pockets of poverty and inequality and leveraging other types of development finance, while being careful that the increasing use of loans does not create unsustainable debt for these countries.This chapter also includes two opinion pieces by: 1) Gyan Chandra Acharya, United Nations Under-Secretary-General, on how half of all ODA should go to the least developed countries; and 2) Alicia Bárcena, Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, on the structural gap approach as a new model for co-operation with middle-income countries.

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      Growing dynamism in South-South co‑operation

      South-South co-operation – the exchange of resources, technology and knowledge among developing countries – is increasingly significant for promoting development. While traditional forms of South-South co-operation (trade, investment and technology sharing) are still relevant and growing, new approaches are also emerging that are helping to remodel the development finance landscape. The search for options that can help to end dependence on long-established financial mechanisms is in full swing, including bilateral currency swaps, South-South trust funds and new financial institutions. Such promising developments point to a new era for South-South co‑operation involving deeper engagement, especially in the international finance domain, which can only strengthen the ability to deliver sustainable development in the future.

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      The growing development potential of other official flows

      The development finance landscape has changed dramatically over the past two decades, with the relative importance of official development assistance (ODA) declining in comparison to other external finance available to many developing countries. Since 2008, other official flows (beyond ODA) – provided at close to market terms and/or with a commercial motive – from public bodies in OECD Development Assistance Committee member countries and multilateral institutions have made up, on average, one-third of all official flows to developing countries. This chapter outlines recent trends in these other official flows, their development potential and impact. International financial institutions are the largest providers of non-concessional development finance, representing almost two-thirds of their operations in 2012; more than 95% went to middle-income countries. Officially supported export credits, although commercially motivated, can also help finance large projects in developing countries. These flows deserve greater consideration in developing countries’ search for external financial resources.

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      Putting foreign direct investment to work for development

      Foreign direct investment in developing countries can create jobs, develop technology and new productive capacity, and help local firms access new international markets. Over the past two decades, developing countries have steadily increased their share of global foreign direct investment. In 2012 for the first time, their share exceeded that of developed countries, making foreign direct investment by far the biggest source of international capital flows to developing countries (60% on average). This chapter reviews the trends in foreign direct investment in developing countries, and their implications. Foreign direct investment has displayed volatility at the global level, although developing countries have been cushioned to some extent by the increase in South-South investment, especially by the People’s Republic of China. In 2012, China was the fifth largest outward investor in the world, accounting for 5% of global flows. Regional shares are uneven, however, with Africa receiving the lowest share by far of global investment flows. There is also an increase in the phenomenon of investment de-globalisation, which is weakening the economic linkages between developed countries and the rest of the world.

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      Are institutional investors the answer for long-term development financing?

      Developing countries need long-term investors to help finance activities that support sustainable growth such as infrastructure, including low-carbon infrastructure. With USD 83.2 trillion in assets in 2012 in OECD countries alone, institutional investors – pension funds, insurers and sovereign wealth funds – represent a potentially major source of long-term financing for developing countries. Despite the recent financial crisis, the prospect for future growth for institutional investors is unabated, especially in developing countries. But although interest is growing, the overall level of institutional investment in infrastructure remains modest and major barriers to investment still exist. Greater growth will depend on policy and structural reforms to create a more favourable investment climate, build private sector confidence and ensure that global savings are channelled into productive and sustainable investments.This chapter also includes an opinion piece on long-term investment by Sony Kapoor, Managing Director of Re-Define, on promoting long-term investment in developing country infrastructure.

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      Tax revenues as a motor for sustainable development

      Tax revenues are critical to sustainable development because they provide governments with independent revenue for investing in development, reducing poverty and delivering public services as well as increasing state capacity, accountability and responsiveness to their citizens. Yet, while OECD countries collect on average 34% of their gross domestic product as tax, developing countries achieve only half this rate. This chapter reflects on the potential within many developing countries to increase tax income and outlines the challenges to doing so, such as weak administrations, corruption, poor governance, low tax morale and poor compliance, compounded by difficulties in taxing multinational enterprises.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Abdalla Hamdok, Deputy Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, on how better taxation can help Africa fund its own sustainable development.

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      Foundations as development partners

      Philanthropic foundations play an important role in sustainable development – not only in mobilising financial resources, but also as development actors in their own right. Until recently, however, official development agencies and foundations have followed parallel paths without much collaboration. Yet, including foundations more strategically in development policy processes can reinforce their role as partners, rather than solely as financiers. Foundations have advantages over official development co-operation providers that include greater operating freedom, capacity for innovation and risk-taking, and ability to leverage additional funding. This chapter outlines some ways forward for enhancing collaboration and joint funding, building on each other’s comparative advantages and shared thematic interests.

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      The changing role of NGOs and civil society in financing sustainable development

      The role of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and civil society in financing sustainable development is important, but it is changing. While domestic resource mobilisation and international commercial flows are growing very rapidly, they are not equally available to all. NGO finance, capacity and expertise are critical for populations at risk of being left behind. This chapter outlines the scale and trends in resources raised and mobilised by NGOs and civil society, and identifies a rise in direct giving by the public. It finds that the classifications of countries into developed and developing, and models based on raising money in the North and spending it in the South do not fit well with the distribution of poverty across and within countries. New business models are needed. To achieve the post-2015 global goals, civil society finance and expertise are needed, along with new cross‑border partnerships between organisations working on similar issues, supported by increased transparency and civil society space.

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      What place for remittances in the post-2015 framework?

      In 2012, developing countries received at least USD 351 billion in remittances (funds sent by people living and working abroad to their home countries). Remittances represent one of the largest, and fastest growing, sources of external income for these countries. While the motivation for sending remittances, and their impact, can vary, their development potential is increasingly acknowledged and scrutinised. This chapter explores how remittances can be tracked better, analyses the extent to which they promote development, and outlines the main steps and obstacles to realising their developmental potential. It also shares a range of innovative ways to catalyse and optimise the use of remittances, including matching them to achieve greater development impact and gain the confidence of international capital markets.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Mthuli Ncube, Chief Economist and Vice President of the African Development Bank, on harnessing the potential of remittances in Africa.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Mechanisms for increasing resources for sustainable development

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      Using financial instruments to mobilise private investment for development

      This chapter describes a range of financial instruments increasingly used by public development finance providers to mobilise resources for investment in developing countries. It focuses on the functioning of pooling mechanisms, guarantees and equity investments, and their potential to mobilise private investment in key sectors such as infrastructure.This chapter also includes two opinion pieces. The first is by Pierre Jacquet, President of the Global Development Network, on how official development assistance should be used to enhance risk sharing between the private and public sectors. The second is by Owen Barder of the Center for Global Development on stimulating private investment by ensuring genuine returns for success.

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      Creating an environment for investment and sustainable development

      The increasing share of global foreign direct investment to developing countries is not evenly spread, with Africa receiving the lowest portion despite its plentiful investment opportunities. This chapter explores the obstacles to investment in developing countries and analyses the ingredients of a conducive investment climate. These include creating regulatory and legal capacity for managing investment inflows, promoting and facilitating investment, attracting private investment in infrastructure, strengthening the links between investment and trade, and promoting responsible business conduct by multinational enterprises. However, attracting investment is not the end of the story: sustainable development depends as much on the quality of investment as on the quantity. Policy makers in host countries must therefore harness investment inflows so they generate maximum development benefits through employment, technology transfer, competitiveness and growth of domestic enterprises and industries.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Justin Yifu Lin, Honorary Dean at the National School of Development, Peking University, and former Chief Economist of the World Bank, on how any developing country can undergo dynamic structural transformation.

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      Fighting corruption and illicit financial flows

      Corruption and the illicit transfer of funds out of developing countries can undermine sustainable development by reducing the resources available for essential public services, undermining a country’s capacity to attract investors and fuel the economy, and weakening the trust between citizen and state. As illicit flows are often transnational problems, all countries involved – whether developing or OECD – need to work together. This chapter reviews OECD country performance in tackling money laundering and bribery and in repatriating stolen assets. It looks at what could be done to close legal loopholes, strengthen political will and enforce more serious penalties for non-compliance. Development co-operation can also do more to help developing countries fulfil their own responsibilities, such as strengthening governance systems for detecting and reducing corruption; requesting asset repatriation; and bringing to justice those found guilty of corruption, theft of public resources and money laundering.

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      Supporting countries in growing their tax base

      Countries’ capacity to raise sufficient revenue of their own is critical for sustainable development. Yet developing countries face many hurdles in increasing their tax‑to‑GDP ratios. This chapter illustrates how development co-operation offers large, but largely untapped, potential for supporting tax system reform. A range of well‑designed and co-ordinated development co-operation approaches, from budget support to technical assistance, have had positive results, including in the most challenging of contexts, such as Afghanistan. Technical assistance is becoming more innovative, as the Tax Inspectors Without Borders initiative, currently being piloted by the OECD shows. International co-operation is also key in ensuring that developing countries do not lose much-needed revenue to emerging global challenges, such as the taxation of multinational enterprises.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Nigeria’s Co‑ordinating Minister for the Economy and Minister of Finance, on the importance of realising the potential of taxation.

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      Innovating to finance development

      Innovative financing for development initiatives aim to narrow the gap between the resources needed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and the resources actually available. While there is no agreed definition of innovative financing for development, existing initiatives can be broadly classified as those aiming to raise new funds for development (innovative sourcing) and those which optimise the use of traditional funding sources (innovative spending). Innovative financing for development initiatives have so far mobilised only part of the shortfall they aim to eliminate. However, their potential is still to be exploited. An array of mechanisms with large fundraising potential has been proposed over the past decade. Out of these initiatives, a tax on transactions in the financial markets has gained new political momentum and is already being implemented in a few countries. It is estimated that this mechanism, if implemented in G20 countries, could make available over USD 50 billion for development every year.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Philippe Douste-Blazy, United Nations Under-Secretary-General and Special Advisor on Innovative Financing for Development, on how innovative financing can put the world’s wealth to work for all people.

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      Enhancing the contribution of social business to sustainable development

      Social business is receiving increasing international attention, but what exactly is it? What can it contribute to poverty reduction, and how does it foster human development? This chapter illustrates how social businesses can create new sources of income, raise productivity, reduce aid dependency and provide low-income consumers with access to products and services for their basic needs. Yet they are not a panacea: establishing a commercially viable business that contributes to human development is a complex task involving a number of risks, which are exacerbated by a lack of start-up finance and favourable policies. Some of the limitations and risks could be mitigated through cross-sector partnerships, the creation of an enabling environment by development partners, a deliberate regulatory framework and rigorous monitoring and evaluation.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Muhammad Yunus, Founder and Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, on why development without sustainability is meaningless.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Development finance post-2015 and the provision of global goods

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      How can development co-operation address global challenges?

      Poverty reduction is increasingly dependent on the equal distribution and provision of global public goods, such as a stable climate, a solid financial environment, fair trade and freedom from infectious disease. This chapter asks how official development assistance (ODA) can respond to these global challenges. A new concept of international development is proposed, with clear targets for global public goods; targeting of ODA to support the least developed countries and fragile states; and a view of development co-operation as part of a broader and more complex global agenda, involving both the public and the private sector, including civil society. The post-2015 goals offer an important opportunity to better align the policy agendas of developing and developed countries and to signal a refreshed commitment to finding new financing sources to fund shared goals. Achieving them will require greater solidarity among all nations and coherence of both domestic and foreign policies.

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      Finding synergies for environment and development finance

      Environment and development are inextricably linked: without further policy action, local and global environmental risks threaten to reverse development gains made to date by raising water, food and other resource scarcity risks as well as extreme weather disaster risks. Recognition of the two-way relationship between the environment and development is a foundation for the design of the Sustainable Development Goals, which are to replace the Millennium Development Goals post-2015. Development finance for the environment – and especially climate change – is on the increase, largely driven by international commitments and financial mechanisms under the Rio conventions. Effective responses to global environmental issues necessitate international co-operation and co-ordinated global level action. This chapter outlines this complex financial landscape and the potential for countries to take action to tap the potential synergies among growing new sources of environment finance and traditional sources of development finance. Transitioning to low-carbon, climate-resilient and sustainable development pathways requires a holistic approach to finance and investment, shifting public and private finance from brown to green investments, scaling-up green finance, and integrating environmental considerations into all relevant investments and government activities.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Manuel Pulgar Vidal, Peru’s Minister of Environment, on making well-financed climate change action central to the post-2015 goals.

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      Financing peace and security for sustainable development

      There is growing recognition that peace and security are fundamental for socio‑economic development, yet these public goods were not explicitly targeted by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Pursuing them in the post-MDG development framework will require indicators to measure them as well as a global funding mechanism. This chapter explores these challenges, as well as the moral hazard issues associated with identifying and supporting activities to build peace and security. It considers collective mechanisms for financing security and development, such as a global tax and peace bonds, and finds that action should prioritise preventing conflict rather than trying to end existing wars, which is the most costly and risky form of intervention. Critically, traditional development actors will need to be more involved in the provision of peace and security. This public good is too important to be left to the security policy community alone.

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      Backing recovery in fragile states

      By 2018, most of the world’s poor will be living in fragile states – countries marked by conflict, instability and poor governance. These developing countries find it much harder than others to access resources to finance their development. Official development assistance (ODA) to fragile states is declining, foreign investment is volatile and reluctant because of the associated risks, and remittances sent home by migrants – though offering potential for development – are not always used to finance public goods. This chapter asks how the urgent tasks of recovery and development in fragile states can be financed. It highlights the need to focus more on domestic revenue generation – revenue raised within the country – as a source of social spending, and also as a cornerstone of statebuilding. While the focus on domestic revenue is not new in the development community, much more and better support will be needed in order to deliver on its promises.

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      Supporting a fair and equal trading system

      Throughout history, trade has helped to transform economies, reshaping the division of wealth and power. More recently, fragmented production chains offer developing countries the opportunity to enter international markets through specialisation in specific tasks and intermediate products. In addition, the international community has taken steps to make the world trading system more equitable and expanded World Trade Organization (WTO) membership to include most developing countries, most recently Yemen. The WTO Bali Ministerial in December 2013 concluded with several decisions which will further accelerate the integration of poorer countries into the world economy. The Aid-for-Trade Initiative helps to underwrite this progress by assisting developing countries to analyse, implement and adjust to trade agreements and to build their supply-side capacity and infrastructure to compete internationally.This chapter also includes an opinion piece by Roberto Azevêdo, Director‑General of the World Trade Organization, on how the full potential of trade for development is yet to be tapped.

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      Trends in Development Assistance Committee members' development co‑operation: A synthesis of peer reviews, 2012-14

      This chapter synthesises key findings and emerging trends in development co‑operation from DAC peer reviews. It covers both mid-term reviews and full peer reviews completed between January 2012 and April 2014.* In identifying trends in the strategic orientations, organisation and operations of DAC members’ development co-operation emerging from recent peer reviews, the aim of this chapter is to identify areas of collective progress and collective challenge, with a view to establishing an agenda for future learning from peer reviews. The chapter begins with a set of key messages, followed by further detail against the core dimensions contained within the OECD DAC Peer Review Reference Guide.* Full peer reviews include: Australia, Canada, the European Union, Finland, France, Italy, Korea, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. Mid-term reviews include: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States.

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      Development Assistance Committee members' ODA performance in 2013

      According to preliminary data, in 2013 member countries of the Development Assistance Committee provided USD 134.8 billion in net official development assistance (ODA), representing 0.30% of their combined gross national income (GNI). Despite continued pressure on budgets in OECD countries, ODA rose by 6.1% in real terms compared to 2012, marking a rebound after two years of falling volumes, as a number of governments stepped up their ODA spending. ODA grew steadily from 1997 to a first peak in 2010, but fell in 2011 and 2012 as many governments took austerity measures and trimmed their aid budgets.

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      Australia

      14.7 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were mainly composed of foreign direct investment (59%).

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      Austria

      3.4 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012.

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      Belgium

      0.3 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were composed of private export credits (100%).

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      Canada

      9.2 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were mainly composed of foreign direct investments.

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      Czech Republic

      In 2013, the Czech Republic provided USD 212 million ODA (preliminary data). This represented 0.11% of gross national income (GNI) and a fall of 4.7% in real terms from 2012. In its Development Co-operation Strategy (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2010), the Czech Republic committed to maintaining a gradual increase in its ODA as a percentage of GNI. While the share of ODA to GNI averaged 0.12% in 2010-12, it decreased in 2013 due mainly to the termination of activities supported by the Czech Republic in Afghanistan. The Czech Republic’s share of untied ODA (excluding administrative costs and in‑donor refugee costs) was 45% in 2012, compared to the DAC average of 81%. The grant element of total ODA was 100% in 2012. At present, data on other official flows, private grants (funds raised by non-governmental organisations and foundations) and private flows at market terms from the Czech Republic to developing countries are not available.

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      Denmark

      -242 million USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were mostly composed of foreign direct investment.

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      European Union institutions

      15.9 billion USD of official development assistance (ODA) in 2013 (preliminary data).

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      Finland

      180 million USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were composed of foreign direct investment (100%).

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      France

      18 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were mainly composed of foreign direct investment (53%).

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      Germany

      21.4 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were mainly composed of foreign direct investment (74%).

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      Greece

      579 million USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were composed of foreign direct investment (100%).

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      Iceland

      In 2013, Iceland delivered USD 35 million ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.26% of gross national income (GNI) and a 27.4% increase in real terms from 2012. Iceland’s ODA has been increasing since 2011, both in volume and as a share of GNI to ODA. It is committed to achieve 0.7% ODA/GNI. All of its ODA (excluding administrative costs and in-donor refugee costs) was untied in 2012, compared with the DAC average of 81%. The grant element of total ODA was 100% in 2012. At present, data on other official flows, private grants and private flows at market terms from Iceland to developing countries are not available.

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      Ireland

      931 million USD of private flows at market terms in 2011.

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      Italy

      8.1 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were mainly composed of foreign direct investment (98%).

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      Japan

      32.5 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were mainly composed of foreign direct investment (96%).

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      Korea

      9.6 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were composed of foreign direct investment (99%).

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      Luxembourg

      431 million USD of official development assistance (ODA) in 2013 (preliminary data).

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      Netherlands

      13.9 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. Foreign direct investment made up 23% of these flows.

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      New Zealand

      35 million USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were composed of foreign direct investment (100%).

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      Norway

      -0.7 million USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. Foreign direct investment made up 23% of these flows.

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      Poland

      Poland does not have a separate private sector development strategy, but supporting entrepreneurship, and in particular small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in partner countries, is one of the priorities of Polish development co-operation for 2012-15.

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      Portugal

      -114 million USD of private flows at market terms in 2012.

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      Slovak Republic

      The Slovak Republic’s Business Partnership programme – one of its eight main programmes – aims to find synergies between the goals of Slovak development co-operation and the goals of the business sector in partner countries. The programme focuses on strengthening socio-economic development of local communities and mobilising private financial resources in order to enhance development activities. The programme helps establish partnerships with local business entities in partner countries to strengthen their capacities while helping Slovak entities access new markets – without providing export subsidies.

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      Slovenia

      Slovenia does not have a specific strategy for supporting private sector development. It does, however, involve domestic firms in its development co-operation. For example, almost half of Slovenia’s country programmable aid is tendered by partner countries themselves – according to their own public procurement procedures – and often involves industrial projects with Slovenian firms.

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      Spain

      -63 million USD of private flows at market terms in 2012, which were composed of private export credits (100%).

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      Sweden

      8.9 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were mainly composed of foreign direct investment (97%)

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      Switzerland

      11.5 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were mainly composed of foreign direct investment.

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      United Kingdom

      48.5 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were mainly composed of foreign direct investment (84%).

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      United States

      107 billion USD of private flows at market terms in 2012. These flows were mainly composed of foreign direct investment (43%).

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      Trends and profiles of other providers' development co-operation,

      This chapter presents information on the volume and key features of the development co-operation by providers beyond the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) membership. Eighteen of these providers report to the OECD on their development co‑operation programmes. For another ten providers, the OECD makes estimates based on official government reports, complemented by web-based research (mainly on contributions to multilateral organisations). The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the only private funding entity reporting to the OECD, is also included in this chapter.

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      Statistical annex

      Net OOF flows were negative in 2000-01, 2003-04 and 2006-08.

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      Methodological notes on the Profiles of Development Assistance Committee members

      General point: Unless otherwise stated, the figures in the profiles refer to gross bilateral disbursements and are expressed in constant USD 2012. All of the data presented in the profiles are publicly available at: www.oecd.org/dac/stats.

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      Technical notes on definitions and measurement

      The coverage of the data presented in the Development Co-operation Report has changed in recent years. The main points are as follows.

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      Glossary

      Associated financing: The combination of official development assistance (ODA), whether grants or loans, with other official or private funds to form finance packages.

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