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1. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D

As a percentage of GDP You or your institution have access to this content

Keywords: development, R&D, research, expenditure
12 Nov 2009
Update frequency:
Annual
DOI:
10.1787/2075843x-2009-table1
Also available in: French
 
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Science and technology: Key tables from OECD - ISSN 2075-843X - © OECD 2009

 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D
 As a percentage of GDP
 
 
 
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
 
Australia
..
 
1.69
 
..
 
1.78
 
..
 
2.01
 
..
 
..
 
 
Austria
2.07
 
 c
2.14
 
2.26
 
 c
2.26
 
2.44
 
 c
2.46
 
2.57
 
 c
2.66
 
 c
 
Belgium
2.08
 
1.94
 
1.89
 
1.87
 
1.84
 
1.88
 
 p
1.87
 
 p
..
 
 
Canada
2.09
 
2.04
 
2.04
 
2.08
 
2.05
 
1.98
 
1.88
 
 p
1.82
 
 p
 
Czech Republic
1.21
 
1.20
 
1.25
 
1.25
 
1.41
 
1.55
 
1.54
 
..
 
 
Denmark
2.39
 
2.51
 
2.58
 
2.49
 
2.46
 
2.48
 
2.55
 
 c
..
 
 
Finland
3.30
 
3.36
 
3.43
 
3.45
 
3.49
 
3.45
 
3.48
 
3.46
 
 c
 
France
2.20
 
2.23
 
2.17
 
2.15
 
2.10
 
2.10
 
 p
2.08
 
 p
..
 
 
Germany
2.46
 
2.49
 
2.52
 
2.49
 
2.49
 
2.54
 
2.54
 
 c
..
 
 
Greece
0.58
 
..
 
0.57
 
0.55
 
 c
0.58
 
0.57
 
 c
0.58
 
 c
..
 
 
Hungary
0.92
 
1.00
 
0.93
 
0.88
 
0.94
 
1.00
 
0.97
 
..
 
 
Iceland
2.95
 
2.95
 
 c
2.82
 
..
 
2.77
 
2.99
 
2.75
 
2.76
 
 p
 
Ireland
1.10
 
1.10
 
1.17
 
1.24
 
1.25
 
1.30
 
1.31
 
1.45
 
 
Italy
1.09
 
1.13
 
1.11
 
1.10
 
1.09
 
1.13
 
..
 
..
 
 
Japan
3.12
 
3.17
 
3.20
 
3.17
 
3.32
 
3.41
 
3.44
 
..
 
 
Korea
2.59
 
2.53
 
2.63
 
2.85
 
2.98
 
3.23
 
3.47
 
..
 
 
Luxembourg
..
 
..
 
1.65
 
1.63
 
1.56
 
1.66
 
1.63
 
 p
..
 
 
Mexico
0.36
 
0.40
 
0.40
 
0.43
 
0.46
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
 
Netherlands
1.80
 
1.72
 
1.76
 
1.78
 
1.72
 
 p
1.71
 
 p
1.71
 
 p
..
 
 
New Zealand
1.14
 
..
 
1.19
 
..
 
1.16
 
..
 
1.21
 
..
 
 
Norway
1.59
 
1.66
 
1.71
 
1.59
 
1.52
 
1.52
 
1.64
 
..
 
 
Poland
0.62
 
0.56
 
0.54
 
0.56
 
0.57
 
0.56
 
0.57
 
..
 
 
Portugal
0.80
 
0.76
 
 c
0.74
 
0.77
 
 c
0.81
 
1.00
 
 c
1.18
 
 p
..
 
 
Slovak Republic
0.63
 
0.57
 
0.57
 
0.51
 
0.51
 
0.49
 
0.46
 
..
 
 
Spain
0.92
 
0.99
 
1.05
 
1.06
 
1.12
 
1.20
 
1.27
 
..
 
 
Sweden
4.17
 
..
 
3.85
 
3.62
 
3.60
 
3.74
 
 c
3.60
 
 p
..
 
 
Switzerland
..
 
..
 
..
 
2.90
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
 
Turkey
0.54
 
0.53
 
0.48
 
0.52
 
0.59
 
0.58
 
0.71
 
..
 
 
United Kingdom
1.79
 
1.79
 
1.75
 
1.69
 
1.73
 
1.76
 
1.79
 
 p
..
 
 
United States
2.76
 
2.66
 
2.66
 
2.59
 
2.62
 
2.66
 
2.68
 
 p
..
 
 
EU27
1.76
 
1.76
 
1.75
 
1.73
 
1.73
 
1.76
 
1.77
 
 p
..
 
 
OECD Total
2.25
 
2.22
 
2.22
 
2.19
 
2.23
 
2.26
 
2.29
 
 p
..
 
Last updated: 12 November 2009
Note:  Country specific footnotes are available at www.oecd.org/dataoecd/52/43/43143328.pdf
National estimate or projection adjusted, if necessary, by the Secretariat to meet OECD norms
Provisional
Source: Main Science and Technology Indicators, OECD Science, Technology and R&D Statistics
 

This table includes data on gross expenditure on research and development. The table is part of the key tables collection on science and technology.

Years covered:
2001-2008

Countries covered

  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Korea, Republic of
  • Luxembourg
  • Mexico
  • Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Slovak Republic
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden