General Survey 2004
The General Survey of Fisheries Policy Developments and Emerging Issues in OECD Countries (the General Survey) is developed below through seven major chapters. The chapter on Marine Capture Fisheries commences by describing the status of fisheries in the world in general and in OECD countries in particular.
Special Chapter on Policy Coherence for Development in Fisheries
The objective of this scoping study is to explore areas within fisheries where policy coherence could be an issue. Policy coherence as a subject area is about 10 years old and the associated literature continues to expand each year. Policy coherence in fisheries is little studied, but there is the perception that it is increasingly important for international policy development in key areas such as poverty reduction.
Australia has the third largest fishing zone in the word, but annually ranks about 50th in terms of its commercial fisheries production. In 2002-03, Australia’s fisheries production increased by an estimated 4.9% to 249 000 tonnes. However, with falling unit values for many species, the gross value of fisheries production fell by about 5.5% to AUD 2.3 billion.
Since the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002, Canada has ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), and continues to support working through regional fisheries management organisations.
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country with no sea fisheries. The main activity is aquaculture (pond-based fish farming and breeding), and there is a long tradition of carp production. The Czech Republic has over 24 000 ponds and tanks, mostly in southern Bohemia and covering a total of around 50 000 hectares.
Over the period 2002-03 the European Community’s work on the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) focused on a comprehensive reform of this Policy. The reform was necessary to achieve biologically, environmentally and economically sustainable fisheries.
The total catch of fisheries products by Belgian vessels decreased in 2003 by 10% to 23 300 tonnes. Particularly the direct export through landings in foreign ports was responsible for this substantial decrease, being reduced by 50% to 3 200 tonnes, which represents 14% of the total landings of the national fleet.
As one of the world’s major exporters of fish products, Denmark exported 1 132 866 tonnes of fish in 2002, valued at DKK 17.1 billion, and in 2003 exported 1 074 827 tonnes of fish valued at DKK 17.4 billion. Landings by the Danish fleet amounted to 1 455 301 tonnes in 2002, and 1 054 236 tonnes in 2003.
Total commercial marine catch in 2002 was 98 392 tonnes. The catch was 78 077 tonnes in 2003 with a value of EUR 19.5 million. Aquaculture production in 2002 was 15 132 tonnes, which was 600 tonnes less than in 2001. In 2003 the production was diminished to 12 558 tonnes.
The period 2001-02 was marked by Common Fisheries Policy reform in the European Union. The reform relates to both fishery management tools and financial instruments affecting the fishing fleet. However, it is not due to come into force until 2003.
In spite of increased landings, the German fisheries sector experienced a decline in sales in 2003. This can be attributed to sinking prices for almost all important target species. The increased landings of German fisheries made the degree of self-sufficiency rise to 26%.
The Legislative Decree No. 420/70 and Law No. 1740/87 establish the framework for the management of fisheries in Greece and the measures taken for the preservation of the aquatic resources. Based on this legislative framework, an important number of presidential decrees have been issued, including measures taken for the regulation of fisheries within the territorial waters of Greece.
In 2002, landings of fish (quota and non-quota species) by Irish registered vessels into Irish and foreign ports totalled almost 278 000 tonnes (live weight) with a total value of more than EUR 234 million. In 2003 the total volume rose to over 298 000 tonnes. However, the value fell to EUR 196 million, indicative of a generally difficult year for the industry.
In the last few years, the national fish production has shown a steady decline. In the year 2003, the output of the Italian fishing fleet amounted to approximately 312 000 tonnes, corresponding to an overall turn over as high as EUR 1 466 million.
The period 2001-02 was marked by Common Fisheries Policy reform in the European Union. A new Common Fisheries Policy is effective as of 2003. Dutch fisheries policy is implemented in the context of the European Unions Common Fisheries Policy.
In late 2002, the European Commission adopted Council Regulation (EC) No. 2371/2002 of 20 December 2002, on the conservation and sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The new regulation came into force on 1 January 2003 for a period of 10 years, i.e. until 2012.
The objective of Spain’s policy initiatives is to find a way of managing fisheries that is consistent with sustainable exploitation of resources and ensures the continuation of fishing operations. In short, the objective is responsible fishing.
During 2002 and 2003 the Swedish fishing industry was largely affected by declining fish stocks. Profitability decreased significantly for most fleet segments from a height in 2001. In addition prices at landings fell for most species.
During 2002 and 2003 the UK Government sought to improve fisheries management while ensuring the sustainable exploitation of fish stocks. A system of fixed quota allocation was introduced from 1 January 1999, replacing arrangements under which allocations had been based on landings in the three years preceding any quota year.
Total catch for 2002 was 2 133 000 tonnes of fish, shellfish and crustaceans and 1 979 000 tonnes for 2003. This is an increase of 23% from 2001 to 2002 and 14% from 2001 to 2003.
Japan’s fishery production has been decreasing in recent years due to the result of tightened international regulations for distant water fisheries and unstable resource conditions in Japan’s offshore areas.
Fishery production in 2003 was 2 486 617 metric tonnes (mt) valued at KRW 4 770 billion, an increase of 10 429 mt (0.4%) from 2 476 188 mt in 2002 due to increased production in mariculture (see Table III.20.1).
Mexico enjoys international recognition as one of the countries with the richest biological diversity on the planet, mainly because of the innumerable endemic species of flora and fauna that inhabit or breed its territory.
2003 was a difficult year for New Zealand fisheries due to the strengthening of the New Zealand dollar against the US dollar, which our major international fish sales are contracted in. Exports reached NZD 1.5 billion in 2002 and dropped to NZD 1.2 billion in 2003.
In 2003, landing of fish by Norwegian registered vessels totalled 2.5 million metric tonnes, with a total value at first hand of NOK 8.9 billion. This implies a decrease in both catch and first hand value from 2002 levels of 2.7 million metric tonnes and NOK 11.2 billion. In addition to reduced catch, a strong Norwegian Krone also causes reduced catch value due to the fact that about 90% of the total Norwegian catches are exported and paid in foreign currencies.
Fisheries management at the national level is the responsibility of the Department of Fisheries of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. It is comprised of the following units: Inland Fishery; Structural Policy; Fish Market, Sea Resources Management, Fisheries Monitoring Center located in Gdynia.
The fisheries sector is managed in accordance with the Fisheries Law (No. 1380), enacted in 1971 which was amended by Laws 3288 of 1986 and 4950 of 2003. Every two years commercial fisheries and sport fishing circulars are published and announced in the Official Journal.
The United States landed a total of 4.4 million metric tonnes of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic products valued at USD 3.5 billion in 2003. In 2002, 4.4 million metric tonnes were harvested valued at USD 3.2 billion.
The Argentinean fishing sector faces quantitative restrictions on captures, imposed by the availability of exploitable resources in the Argentinean EEZ and natural annual fluctuations, not exclusively associated with actual fishing activity pressure.
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