Connecting with Emigrants

Connecting with Emigrants

A Global Profile of Diasporas You do not have access to this content

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Author(s):
OECD
Publication Date :
05 Oct 2012
Pages :
380
ISBN :
9789264177949 (PDF) ; 9789264177932 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/9789264177949-en

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The potential of diasporas as a source of economic and social development in origin countries and whether diasporas could help foster development depend on their characteristics, such as size, composition, skill levels and degree of concentration, but also on the degree of integration into the destination countries and the economic, political and social environment in origin countries. Governments of origin and destination countries can indeed facilitate the involvement of diasporas, by supporting networks, by facilitating communication channels with the country of origin, by creating an enabling environment, or – more directly – by easing skill mobility and use. In this regard, the capacity to characterise the profile of diasporas is instrumental.

This joint OECD/AFD publication includes 140 country notes summarising diaspora sizes, including the number of children of migrants born in the destination countries; the characteristics of emigrant populations (gender, age, education, labour market outcomes); the numbers and main destinations of international students; recent migrant flows to OECD countries; and information on the desire to emigrate of different population groups. The country note information is grouped into six regions: Asia and Oceania; Latin America and the Caribbean; OECD countries; Non-OECD Europe and Central Asia; Middle East and North Africa; and Sub-Saharan Africa. The situation in each region is introduced by a separate chapter, which looks at historical migration trends, the main characteristics of diasporas originating from the region, and likely future developments and challenges.

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    Foreword

    The worldwide stock of international migrants has risen significantly in recent decades, from 77 million persons in 1960 to an estimated 214 million in 2010 – an increase of 177% – equivalent to just over 3% of the global population in 2010. In addition, the composition of migrant communities has also gone through major changes with more high-skilled migrants, more migrant women and a diversification of both countries of origin and destination. In the meantime, contacts with the origin countries have been greatly facilitated as a result of both recent advances in information and communication technology and decreasing transportation costs. In this context, the potential impact of diasporas on the development of origin countries has become a crucial issue for governments and development agencies.

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    Acronyms and abbreviations
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    Diasporas – Definition, Data and Dynamics

    The potential contribution of a diaspora to the economic and social development of its country of origin will depend on many factors, such as its size, average skill level, wealth, seniority and degree of organisation. This chapter presents a panorama of the diasporas, including children of immigrants, in OECD countries and discusses some of the main challenges and opportunities involved with channeling their economic potential to support the development of origin countries. Looking forward, the chapter also presents data on the desire to emigrate for different population groups, based on the results of the Gallup World Poll Survey.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Asia and Oceania

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      Asia and Oceania: migration analysis

      This chapter looks at recent migration flows and diasporas from Asian countries to the OECD area. It shows that in 2010 almost 1.5 million new Asian migrants settled in OECD countries, accounting for about 30% of total immigration flows. In 2005/06 there were 14.9 million emigrants, 15 years old or older, from the region in OECD countries, of which 53% were women and 46% hold a tertiary diploma. Total emigration rate for those over 15 years of age reached 0.6% for the region as a whole. The emigration rate for the highly educated was 4.1%, but high rates prevailed for the small island nations. Future challenges relate notably to the management of labour migration within the region and the recent developments in international migration of women.This chapter also contains 19 country notes for Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (not including Hong Kong, China and Macao, China), Fiji, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tonga and Viet Nam.

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      Afghanistan
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      Bangladesh
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      Cambodia
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      China
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      Fiji
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      India
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      Indonesia
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      Laos
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      Malaysia
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      Myanmar
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      Nepal
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      Pakistan
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      Papua New Guinea
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      Philippines
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      Singapore
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      Sri Lanka
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      Thailand
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      Tonga
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      Viet Nam
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Latin America and the Caribbean

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      Latin America and the Caribbean: migration analysis

      This chapter looks at recent migration flows and diasporas from Latin America and the Caribbean countries to the OECD area. It shows that in 2010 almost 900 000 new migrants from the region settled in OECD countries, accounting for about 17% of total immigration flows. In 2005/06 there were 14 million emigrants (almost 25 million when including Mexico and Chile), 15 years old or older, from the region in OECD countries, of which 53% were women and 24% held a tertiary diploma. Total emigration rate for those over 15 years of age reached 4.4% for the region as a whole. The emigration rate for the highly educated was close to 11%. Future challenges refer notably to integration of immigrants and their children in destination countries as well as to the mobilisation of the diaspora to support economic development in origin countries.This chapter also contains 22 country notes for Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela.

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      Argentina
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      Barbados
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      Belize
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      Bolivia
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      Brazil
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      Colombia
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      Costa Rica
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      Cuba
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      Dominican Republic
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      Ecuador
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      El Salvador
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      Guatemala
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      Haiti
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      Honduras
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      Jamaica
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      Nicaragua
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      Panama
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      Paraguay
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      Peru
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      Trinidad and Tobago
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      Uruguay
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      Venezuela
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts OECD Countries

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      OECD Countries: migration analysis

      This chapter looks at recent migration flows and diasporas from OECD countries to the OECD area. It shows that in 2010 almost 1.6 million new migrants from the region settled in OECD countries, accounting for about 30% of total immigration flows. In 2005/06 there were 39.5 million emigrants, 15 years old or older, from the region in OECD countries, of which 50% were women and 24% hold a tertiary diploma. Total emigration rate for those over 15 years of age reached 3.8% for the region as a whole. The emigration rate for the highly educated was of similar level. Future challenges relate notably to the management of labour migration in the context of demographic ageing and low economic growth.This chapter also contains 34 country notes for all OECD countries.

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      Australia
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      Austria
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      Belgium
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      Canada
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      Chile
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      Czech Republic
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      Denmark
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      Estonia
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      Finland
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      France
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      Germany
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      Greece
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      Hungary
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec061.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/iceland_9789264177949-61-en
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      Iceland
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec062.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/ireland_9789264177949-62-en
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      Ireland
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec063.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/israel_9789264177949-63-en
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      Israel
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec064.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/italy_9789264177949-64-en
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      Italy
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec065.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/japan_9789264177949-65-en
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      Japan
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec066.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/korea_9789264177949-66-en
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      Korea
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec067.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/luxembourg_9789264177949-67-en
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      Luxembourg
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec068.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/mexico_9789264177949-68-en
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      Mexico
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec069.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/netherlands_9789264177949-69-en
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      Netherlands
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec070.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/new-zealand_9789264177949-70-en
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      New Zealand
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec071.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/norway_9789264177949-71-en
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      Norway
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec072.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/poland_9789264177949-72-en
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      Poland
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec073.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/portugal_9789264177949-73-en
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      Portugal
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec074.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/slovak-republic_9789264177949-74-en
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      Slovak Republic
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec075.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/slovenia_9789264177949-75-en
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      Slovenia
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec076.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/spain_9789264177949-76-en
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      Spain
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec077.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/sweden_9789264177949-77-en
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      Sweden
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec078.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/switzerland_9789264177949-78-en
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      Switzerland
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec079.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/turkey_9789264177949-79-en
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      Turkey
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec080.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/united-kingdom_9789264177949-80-en
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      United Kingdom
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec081.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/united-states_9789264177949-81-en
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      United States
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Non-OECD Europe and Central Asia

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    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec082.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/non-oecd-europe-and-central-asia-migration-analysis_9789264177949-82-en
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      Non-OECD Europe and Central Asia: migration analysis

      This chapter looks at recent migration flows and diasporas from non-OECD European and Central Asian countries to the OECD area. It shows that in 2010 about 800 000 new migrants from the region settled in OECD countries, accounting for about 15% of total immigration flows. In 2005/06 there were 11 million emigrants, 15 years old or older, from the region in OECD countries, of which 54% were women and 26% held a tertiary diploma. Total emigration rate for those over 15 years of age reached 3.9% for the region as a whole. The emigration rate for the highly educated reached 5.9%. Future challenges relate notably to the persistence of high outmigration and the need to harness the potential of the diaspora to support economic development.This chapter also contains 14 country notes for Albania, Armenia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Romania, the Russian Federation, Serbia, Tajikistan and Ukraine.

    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec083.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/albania_9789264177949-83-en
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      Albania
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec084.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/armenia_9789264177949-84-en
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      Armenia
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec085.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/bulgaria_9789264177949-85-en
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      Bulgaria
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec086.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/croatia_9789264177949-86-en
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      Croatia
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec087.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/kazakhstan_9789264177949-87-en
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      Kazakhstan
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec088.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/kyrgyzstan_9789264177949-88-en
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      Kyrgyzstan
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec089.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/latvia_9789264177949-89-en
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      Latvia
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec090.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/lithuania_9789264177949-90-en
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      Lithuania
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec091.pdf
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      Moldova
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec092.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/romania_9789264177949-92-en
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      Romania
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec093.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/russian-federation_9789264177949-93-en
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      Russian Federation
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec094.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/serbia_9789264177949-94-en
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      Serbia
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec095.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/tajikistan_9789264177949-95-en
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      Tajikistan
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec096.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/ukraine_9789264177949-96-en
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      Ukraine
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Middle East and North Africa

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    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec097.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/middle-east-and-north-africa-migration-analysis_9789264177949-97-en
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      Middle East and North Africa: migration analysis

      This chapter looks at recent migration flows and diasporas from Middle East and North African countries to the OECD area. It shows that in 2010 about 380 000 new migrants from the region settled in OECD countries, accounting for about 7% of total immigration flows. In 2005/06 there were 7 million emigrants, 15 years old or older, from the region in OECD countries, of which 45% were women and 26% held a tertiary diploma. Total emigration rate for those over 15 years of age reached 2.8% for the region as a whole. The emigration rate for the highly educated reached 7.6%. Future challenges relate notably to the implication for migration of recent geopolitical changes and the need to deal with increasing cohorts of young people entering the labour market in most MENA countries.This chapter also contains 17 country notes for Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Soudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec098.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/algeria_9789264177949-98-en
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      Algeria
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec099.pdf
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      Bahrain
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec100.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/egypt_9789264177949-100-en
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      Egypt
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec101.pdf
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      Iran
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec102.pdf
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      Iraq
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec103.pdf
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      Jordan
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec104.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/kuwait_9789264177949-104-en
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      Kuwait
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec105.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/lebanon_9789264177949-105-en
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      Lebanon
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec106.pdf
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      Libya
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec107.pdf
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      Morocco
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec108.pdf
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      Qatar
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec109.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/saudi-arabia_9789264177949-109-en
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      Saudi Arabia
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec110.pdf
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      Sudan
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec111.pdf
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      Syria
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec112.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/tunisia_9789264177949-112-en
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      Tunisia
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec113.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/united-arab-emirates_9789264177949-113-en
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      United Arab Emirates
    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec114.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/yemen_9789264177949-114-en
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      Yemen
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Sub-Saharan Africa

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    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec115.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/sub-saharan-africa-migration-analysis_9789264177949-115-en
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      Sub-Saharan Africa: migration analysis

      This chapter looks at recent migration flows and diasporas from the Sub-Saharan African countries to the OECD area. It shows that in 2010 about 330 000 new migrants from the region settled in OECD countries, accounting for about 6% of total immigration flows. In 2005/06 there were 4 million emigrants, 15 years old or older, from the region in OECD countries, of which 49% were women and 36% held a tertiary diploma. Total emigration rate for those over 15 years of age was only 1% for the region as a whole but the emigration rate for the highly educated was the highest recorded at 13.3%. Future challenges relate notably to the persistence of significant highly skilled outmigration and the need to find new and more effective forms of international co-operation to minimise the cost and maximise the development impact of migration.This chapter also contains 34 country notes for Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Togo, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabawe.

    • Click to Access: 
        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec116.pdf
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      Benin
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec117.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/botswana_9789264177949-117-en
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      Botswana
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec118.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/burkina-faso_9789264177949-118-en
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      Burkina Faso
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec119.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/burundi_9789264177949-119-en
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      Burundi
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec120.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/cameroon_9789264177949-120-en
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      Cameroon
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec121.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/chad_9789264177949-121-en
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      Chad
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec122.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/congo_9789264177949-122-en
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      Congo
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec123.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/cote-d-ivoire_9789264177949-123-en
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      Côte d'Ivoire
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec124.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/democratic-republic-of-the-congo_9789264177949-124-en
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      Democratic Republic of the Congo
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec125.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/eritrea_9789264177949-125-en
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      Eritrea
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec126.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/ethiopia_9789264177949-126-en
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      Ethiopia
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec127.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/gabon_9789264177949-127-en
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      Gabon
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec128.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/gambia_9789264177949-128-en
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      Gambia
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      Ghana
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/guinea_9789264177949-130-en
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      Guinea
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/kenya_9789264177949-131-en
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      Kenya
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      Liberia
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/madagascar_9789264177949-133-en
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      Madagascar
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec134.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/malawi_9789264177949-134-en
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      Malawi
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      Mali
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      Mauritius
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      Mozambique
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      Namibia
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      Niger
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      Nigeria
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec141.pdf
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      Rwanda
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec142.pdf
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      Senegal
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      Sierra Leone
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec144.pdf
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      South Africa
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec145.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/togo_9789264177949-145-en
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      Togo
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      Uganda
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      Tanzania
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec148.pdf
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      Zambia
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec149.pdf
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      Zimbabwe
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec150.pdf
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      Data sources and definitions

      World Development Indicators, World Bank (Total population; Population by age; GDP; Poverty rate).

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec151.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/emigrant-population-persons-born-in-the-former-ussr-and-in-the-former-yugoslavia_9789264177949-151-en
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      Emigrant population: Persons born in the former USSR and in the former Yugoslavia
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec152.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/expatriation-rates-for-nurses-and-doctors-circa-2000_9789264177949-152-en
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      Expatriation rates for nurses and doctors, circa 2000
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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8112081ec153.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/connecting-with-emigrants/references_9789264177949-153-en
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      References

      Adams, Jr., H. Richard and J. Page (2005), Do International Migration and Remittances Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries?, World Development, Vol. 33, No. 10, pp. 1645-1669.

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