OECD Environmental Performance Reviews

1990-0090 (online)
1990-0104 (print)
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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews provide independent assessments of countries’ progress towards their environmental policy objectives. Reviews promote peer learning, enhance government accountability, and provide targeted recommendations aimed at improving environmental performance, individually and collectively. They are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data, and evidence-based analysis. Each cycle of Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD countries and selected partner economies.

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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Slovenia 2012

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06 June 2012
9789264169265 (PDF) ;9789264169258(print)

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This first review of Slovenia's environmental conditions and policies evaluates progress in sustainable development, improving natural resource management, integrating environmental and economic policies, and strengthening international co-operation. It addresses green growth, environmental management, climate change and air pollution, and waste management issues.

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  • Preface

    Slovenia enjoys extraordinarily rich biodiversity and landscapes due to its location at the junction of several ecological systems. However, pressures on these environmental resources have intensified as a result of rapid economic growth over most of the last decade. This OECD Environmental Performance Review, the first since Slovenia became a member of the OECD in 2010, provides an opportunity to take stock of the country’s progress in environmental management and identify remaining challenges.

  • Foreword

    The principal aim of the OECD Environmental Performance Review programme is to help member and selected partner countries to improve their individual and collective performance in environmental management by:

  • General Notes
  • Executive Summary

    Slovenia is the second smallest OECD country by size and the fourth smallest by population. It enjoys extraordinarily rich biodiversity and landscapes due to its location at the junction of several ecological systems. Slovenia’s natural endowment has been enhanced by a tradition of close-to-natural forest management and by low-intensity farming, as well as close co-operation with neighbouring countries. Approximately 62% of the total land area is occupied by forests, about twice the OECD average.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Sustainable Development

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    • Towards Green Growth

      Slovenia experienced rapid economic growth throughout most of the 2000s, with GDP per capita converging with the OECD average. Relatively favourable business- and export-oriented macroeconomic policies, combined with structural reforms stimulated by EU accession, were key factors driving growth. Even though environmental pressures were reduced towards the end of the 2000s due to the impact of the global economic and financial crisis, Slovenia will face a number of pressing environmental challenges as economic growth resumes. This chapter examines Slovenia’s framework for sustainable development and green growth. It analyses how the country has used investment, both public and private, supported by EU funds, to pursue environmental objectives. It also examines the use of economic instruments (i.e. energy and vehicle taxation), the removal of fiscal benefits, environmental fees and charges, and subsidies that encourage environmentally friendly activities or reduce environmentally harmful impacts. Included is an assessment of eco-innovation performance, as measured by environment-related R&D and patenting activity. This chapter also examines policies to encourage green corporate responsibility and investment, as well as green public procurement.

    • Implementation of Environmental Policies

      Over the last ten years, Slovenia has established a comprehensive framework of environmental policies and strengthened its environmental institutions. It has also successfully transposed most of the EU environmental directives into key national laws. This chapter examines Slovenia’s environmental governance, including horizontal and vertical co-ordination, as well as the coherence of the design and implementation of environmental and land use policies. Also analysed are the drivers of improved compliance with environmental requirements and the effectiveness of environmental permitting, enforcement and liability systems. Progress in promoting environmental democracy (through open access to information, improved public participation, education and access to justice) is discussed. In addition, this chapter evaluates environmental performance in two selected policy areas: nature protection and biodiversity conservation; and surface and groundwater management.

    • International Co-operation

      The main focus of Slovenia’s international environmental co-operation has been on co-operative activities with neighbouring countries, particularly those in the Balkan region with which it shares ecosystems and water catchments. Slovenia has also taken several important initiatives under the Danube and Alpine conventions and in the Dinaric Arc area. It has a good record of honouring its commitments under the multilateral environmental agreements to which it is a party. This chapter reviews initiatives to promote sustainable development undertaken by Slovenia in bilateral, regional and multilateral contexts and evaluates their results. It also presents Slovenia’s progress in fulfilling international commitments made in trade and environment-related agreements. Finally, the environmental dimensions of the country’s newly established official development assistance programme are addressed.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Selected Environmental Objectives

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    • Climate Change and Air Pollution

      Slovenia has reduced its emissions of virtually all traditional air pollutants, including SOx, NOx, NMVOCs, CO and NH3, as well as those of particulate matter and heavy metals. While significant structural changes to Slovenia’s economy led to a notable drop in GHG emissions in the 1990s, performance in this area since 2000 has been uneven. Emissions from the manufacturing, commercial and residential sectors have decreased, but not enough to offset an increase from the transport sector. This chapter reviews policy initiatives implemented during the review period to reduce local and transboundary air pollution, institutional and strategic frameworks, and mechanisms in place to monitor implementation. It assesses progress in using market-based instruments (e.g. energy and vehicle taxes) and analyses the effectiveness of measures implemented in the energy and transport sectors, including those promoting renewable and energy efficiency. Interactions between different policy instruments are also considered.

    • Waste Management

      Slovenia’s accession to the EU provided a strong impetus to strengthen the country’s waste management policies and practices. It also provided finance for upgrading and constructing waste management infrastructure. This chapter reviews overall use of materials by the Slovenian economy and changes in resource productivity. It also presents trends in the generation and treatment of municipal and manufacturing waste, including hazardous, as well as waste from construction and demolition activities. The chapter takes stock of policy initiatives and legal reforms, including those that aim to reduce waste generation, encourage recycling, and ensure safe disposal of various waste streams. It discusses the environmental and economic implications of recently implemented measures such as Extended Producer Responsibility and a landfill levy, as well as the reform of waste collection charges. Progress in remediating contaminated land is also examined.

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