Pharmaceutical Manufacture and Formulation in the Commonwealth

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J. N. Banerjee, Riaz Khan
01 Jan 1985
9781848594036 (PDF)
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  • Preface

    The study was undertaken to prepare an inventory of pharmaceutical manufacturers and pharmaceutical packaging plants in the developing member countries of the Commonwealth. Some basic economic indicators and health-related statistics have also been included in the study. In addition, pharmaceutical data in respect of qualified personnel, educational institutions, distribution channels, total and state sector consumption and production figures have been obtained and/or estimated for each country.

  • Introduction

    The Commonwealth Health Ministers at their meeting in Ottawa in October 1983 recommended that “the Secretariat or the Commonwealth Pharmaceutical Association (CPA) should establish an inventory of drug manufacturers and drug packaging plants within the Commonwealth, particularly in the developing countries, in order to assist regional groups making bulk purchase arrangements or planning regional manufacturing and packaging programmes, where these are desirable”. The CPA was commissioned to undertake this project funded by the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation. Dr. J.N. Banerjee, President of CPA and Dr. R.A. Khan, a former adviser to the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) and World Health Organisation (WHO), were appointed as consultants.

  • Basic Indicators and Pharmaceutical Data

    The response of the countries to the questionnaire was prompt and encouraging. Forty out of 49 member countries and two associated countries returned the questionnaire completed with as much information as was available. For the purpose of this study, the basic indicators and pharmaceutical data have been put in order of the income levels of the countries.

  • Inventory of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers

    The replies to Part B of the questionnaire came from 30 developing countries which gave production data from 125 manufacturers. The names and addresses of these manufacturers together with the range of products e.g. antibiotics, vitamins, etc. and the dosage form e.g. tablets, injections etc. are presented in Annex 3. It appears that almost all the units are engaged in formulating finished dosage forms except a few units in the Bahamas, Bangladesh, Jamaica and Singapore which have primary production.

  • Analysis of Economic and Health-Related Indicators

    The total population of all the Commonwealth countries was estimated to be about 1,136 million, of which the 12 low income countries accounted for about 900 million with an average GNP of about US$252 per head. The four industrialised countries with a population of about 100 million had an average GNP of about US$10,625 per head, almost 40 times that of the low income countries.

  • Analysis of Pharmaceutical Data

    The total number of pharmacists in the Commonwealth countries is estimated to be about 251,572 out of which 180,000 are in India and the industrialised countries have 63,511. The average population per pharmacist is estimated.

  • Consumption and Production of Pharmaceuticals

    This study deals with consumption and production in terms of monetary values only, based on local currencies converted into US dollars at approximate rates of exchange in the particular year. No attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the disease patterns as reference can be made to other Commonwealth documents on health. In the present restricted study, it was also not possible to go into details of consumption of pharmaceuticals by therapeutic groups or actual product items, except in a broad and general manner in a reference to production units in the inventory of pharmaceutical manufacturers in Annex 4.

  • Regional Analysis of Data

    The data on the six regions of the Commonwealth is given in Annex 5 and includes population, GNP per head, Central (Government) health expenditure (CHE) as a percentage of the total Central Government expenditure (CE), CHE per head as a percentage of GNP, Total Drug Consumption as a percentage of GNP, and the production status in accordance with Annex 4.

  • Findings

    In the light of the above data and its analysis, in addition to the role of local production the following factors are to be considered in detail while planning a policy and producing a viable programme of drug supply.

  • Recommendations

    In regard to recommendations for individual countries, it must be emphasised at the outset that the names of countries below are purely examples for action on a national level. Other developing countries with similar conditions and problems could be substituted.

  • Acknowledgments

    The CPA Consultants take this opportunity to express their appreciation to the member countries of the Commonwealth for their prompt response in providing material and data which made this report possible.

  • Annexes
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