Gender Management System

2310-1881 (online)
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This series of manuals will assist governments and other stakeholders, including civil society and the private sector, in mainstreaming gender using the Commonwealth Secretariat’s Gender Management System (GMS), which has been developed as a holistic and system-wide approach to promoting equality between women and men at all levels.

Gender Mainstreaming in Education

Gender Mainstreaming in Education

A Reference Manual for Governments and Other Stakeholders You do not have access to this content

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Elsa Leo-Rhynie
01 June 1999
9781848596863 (PDF)

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This is one of the sectoral guides that are part of the Gender Management System (GMS) resource kit, a series of publications presenting GMS. GMS is an innovative system developed by the Commonwealth Secretariat for gender mainstreaming. The system is a comprehensive network of structures, mechanisms and processes for bringing a gender perspective to bear on all government policies, plans, programmes and projects. The kit consists of a handbook which presents the GMS in detail; sectoral guides to gender mainstreaming in specific sectors; and resource documents to assist the user in gender analysis, monitoring, evaluation and other aspects of gender mainstreaming. Each sectoral guide also has a corresponding Quick Guide a short, userfriendly publication presenting the essential points. It is designed for policymakers, planners, field staff and other government personnel involved in gender mainstreaming, as well as for academic users, NGOs, the private sector and others who have a stake in advancing gender equality and equity.

This guide provides an overview of gender issues in the educational sector, including global and Commonwealth mandates for promoting gender equality and equity, and is intended especially for the formal education sector (primary, secondary and tertiary education) of Ministries of Education. It examines traditional indicators (such as literacy, enrolment, access to education and attainment) as well as other areas such as legal and administrative frameworks, the proportions of women in decisionmaking positions, resource allocation, curriculum development, and the organisation of schools and classrooms. It also examines how gender inequalities are perpetuated through the education system.
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  • Preface

    In 1996, Commonwealth Ministers Responsible for Women's Affairs mandated the Commonwealth Secretariat to develop the concept of the Gender Management System (GMS), a comprehensive network of structures, mechanisms and processes for bringing a gender perspective to bear in the mainstream of all government policies, programmes and projects. The success of the GMS depends upon a broad-based partnership in society in which government consults and acts co-operatively with the other key stakeholders, who include civil society and the private sector. The establishment and strengthening of gender management systems and of National Women's Machineries was the first of 15 government action points identified in the 1995 Commonwealth Plan of Action on Gender and Development.

  • Introduction

    Education is universally recognised as playing a key role in sustainable social and economic development. Regardless of the ideology underlying approaches to development, education is always cited as a priority area for attention and the investment of resources.

  • Global and Commonwealth Mandates and Trends in the Education Sector

    The mainstreaming of gender into all activities of government has received endorsement at the highest political levels. It is the central strategy of both the 1995 Commonwealth Plan of Action and the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. In addition, both these documents include specific references to the education sector.

  • Gender in the Education Sector

    Gender inequalities and inequities are both manifested in the education sector and perpetuated through educational structures and processes. A number of issues have been identified which bear upon existing inequalities and their perpetuation within the education system. In examining these issues, it should be borne in mind that they are general trends rather than fixed norms.

  • Strategies and Processes for Mainstreaming Gender in the Education Sector

    To assist member governments in mainstreaming gender into their activities, the Commonwealth is promoting the Gender Management System (GMS), an integrated network of structures, mechanisms and processes designed to make government more gender-aware, increase the numbers of women in decision-making roles within and outside government, facilitate the formulation of gender-sensitive policies, plans and programmes, and promote the advancement of gender equality and equity in the broader civil society.

  • Guidelines for Conducting a Gender Impact Analysis

    Countries differ tremendously in levels of development, in degree of gender asymmetry, and in cultural and traditional attitudes to gender. Moreover, gender intersects with social class/caste, race/ethnicity, culture/religion and age as a basis for inequity, subordination and discrimination in access to opportunity, and all of these factors are manifested differently in different countries. Measuring gender inequity and prescribing for gender equity is thus a highly complex and country-specific, as well as a fluid and dynamic process.

  • Policy Interventions

    The data obtained using the critical policy indicators will provide both quantitative and qualitative information that is crucial in the development of a gender-sensitive educational policy, and must be considered together in the formulation of policy recommendations and operational objectives.

  • Commonwealth Country Case Studies

    From a limited sample survey of four Commonwealth member states, it appears that the inclusion of gender in the planning and policies of education varies considerably. Reviewed in this section are the policies for Zambia, Ghana, Jamaica and a regional policy for the Caribbean community (CARICOM), as well as a project for girls' education in Pakistan.

  • References and Appendix
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