Primary School Teacher Deployment

Primary School Teacher Deployment

A Comparative Study You do not have access to this content

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Fatimah Kelleher
01 Sep 2008
9781848590144 (PDF)

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Ensuring Education for All at the primary school level is not just a matter of recruiting enough teachers: they must be deployed effectively across the education system. Even countries with sufficient total numbers of teachers may have shortages in some areas, or be unsuccessful in recruiting female teachers, with consequences for the participation rate of girls in schools.

Primary School Teacher Deployment presents four detailed studies, from countries with low net educational enrolment levels: Nigeria, Tanzania, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. The book demonstrates the effects of inequitable teacher deployment, and the attempts to address these problems at the country level.

The contributors make overall recommendations on deployment policies and practices in a number of areas to assist educational planners to achieve Education for All goals, particularly with regard to female teachers, but also dealing with training and recruitment, in-service training, teacher incentives, teacher utilisation, and effective decentralisation.
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  • Acronyms and Acknowledgement
  • Introduction

    The study that forms the basis of this book is the outcome of four commissioned reports on primary teacher deployment policies and practices in the Commonwealth countries of Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea and the United Republic of Tanzania. Practices and policies that countries are following in teacher deployment and the effect these have on delivery and children’ access and retention in school are critical factors towards the attainment of universal primary education (UPE) (UNESCO, 2006). Although it is understood that many countries in the Commonwealth are undoubtedly facing the problem of teacher supply, there are also serious challenges of teacher deployment (Commonwealth, 2003). Uneven deployment patterns, with surpluses in certain schools and areas co-existing with shortages in others, exist even in countries where there are sufficient teachers. Factors contributing to these challenges can vary and can include issues pertaining to urban-rural divides, along with other geographic and demographic dynamics. These can include factors such as extreme geographic remoteness, stakeholder influences, local-level versus macro-level targeting, responsiveness to regional deployment practices intricately linked to the overarching issue of decentralisation, and the lack of management and support given at the local administrative level.

  • Comparative Situational Analysis

    The countries chosen – Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea and the United Republic of Tanzania – were identified for study to illuminate key similarities in teacher deployment issues that would help to isolate common ways forward despite their being cross-regional and of varying demographic and national characteristics. It was also hoped that each had specific particularities that would be of interest within an analysis of teacher deployment. Two of the countries, Nigeria and Pakistan, are both densely populated countries with federated political systems, although Nigeria’s constituted states are significant at 36 compared to Pakistan’s six provinces, despite having similar population sizes. Tanzania, as a more sparsely-populated African state nonetheless has an expansive land mass and extreme rural/ urban divisions. Finally, PNG is a Commonwealth small state with a diverse cultural context and remote, difficult-to-access geographical locations.

  • Policies and Practices

    Despite differences between each of the countries in terms of size, population, culture and political infrastructure, there are distinct similarities between all pertaining to the under-staffing of qualified teachers to the rural areas, and strong gender imbalances. This chapter looks at some of the policy provisions and institutional arrangements that are in place for recruiting and deploying teachers.

  • Conclusions and Recommendations

    Ensuring equitable, quality teacher deployment is clearly a challenge for countries, and particularly so for those undergoing expansion and re-structuring of their education systems. As demonstrated in the situational analysis, one of the first challenges for each of the country case studies is the dual responsibility of increasing teacher numbers as means of increasing access to education for the large numbers of children still out of school, coupled with the need for appropriate measures that will prevent an exacerbation of the regional and gendered deployment imbalances that already exist.

  • References, Bibliography and Index
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