Education in the Commonwealth

2310-1806 (online)
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Throughout the world, education is being reconsidered, restructured and replanned in an effort to increase the effectiveness, quality and relevance of educational systems. This series draws together material on selected topics of wide educational interest in order to promote the interchange of ideas and information among individuals, institutions and countries.

Education in the Developing Countries of the Commonwealth

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Education in the Developing Countries of the Commonwealth

Reports of Research in Education, Volume II You do not have access to this content

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Commonwealth Secretariat
01 Jan 1977
9781848592544 (PDF)
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  • Introduction

    This is the second in the series of publications of the Commonwealth Secretariat's effort to bring together brief reports of research findings which were made available at its request and which it is hoped would be of interest to governments and research personnel.

  • Factors Related to the Performance of Third Year Students in Mathematics in Jamaican Post Primary Schools

    Studies done on the academic achievement (Reid, 1964) and the cognitive abilities (Vernon, 1969) of primary school children in Jamaica have suggested that environmental factors greatly affect the academic performance of these children. Mathematics is usually regarded as the school subject which is least affected by social and cultural factors. The writer decided to investigate which of the following variables had the greatest effect on the mathematical performance of secondary school students: psychological variables (affective and cognitive); environmental variables (location, size, and type of school); teacher related variables (experience, qualification, sex, and effectiveness); and other pupil related variables (sex, socio-economic status, and teacher rated performance in mathematics).

  • Prediction of Achievement in Science on the Basis of the Scientific Creativity Test Series

    Even before the Delhi Higher Secondary (Science) Examination (1974) results and the National Science Talent Search Test (1974) results were out (the interview for the latter was still being held) a prediction for achievement in Science of a group of students appearing in these was made on 1st June, 1974 and submitted to the Head of the Department of Education in Science and Mathematics, National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) by this author - based on the technique of topographical analysis of the scatterplot between the distribution of the newly developed Scientific Creativity Test scores and IQ of these subjects.

  • Quantitative Concepts, Vernacular, and Education in Papua New Guinea

    To investigate whether it is possible to collect language information simply and quickly which could be utilized in a “culture-based” approach to curriculum design. To carry out this investigation in the area of quantitative concepts and their use in the development of maths/science programmes in Papua New Guinea.

  • Science and Mathematics Activities and Resources for Teacher Education

    This project was initiated in 1974, and implemented to the 1975/76 batch of Diploma students.

  • Teacher Assessment of Practical Skills in Chemistry at Advanced Level

    Early in 1973 an initial survey was undertaken of the teaching of chemistry in the sixthforms of the 62 schools in Hong Kong which enter candidates for the local Advanced Level examination. This was based on work done earlier by Kerr (1) and Buckley and Kempa (2). Attention was focussed on the role of practical work in the sixth form course, but incidentally covered aspects of facilities within the schools, staffing in the schools, timetabling and budgeting for chemistry teaching.

  • The Effects of Certain Factors Upon Science Orientation in a Sample of Jamaican Fifth Formers

    Many developing nations are not fully attuned to the necessity of providing a background in science required of the individual for effective citizenship in general, or for those entering scientific and technological vocations, specifically. Even if such awareness exists, these nations may not have the financial resources with which to implement this need. Jamaica epitomizes a developing country caught between these two vices.

  • Evaluation of Three Phase Primary Science

    Since mid 1970 an evaluation of the Papua New Guinea Three Phase Primary Science course has been underway, carried out by the Teaching Methods and Materials Centre of the University of Papua New Guinea. This evaluation was requested by the Papua New Guinea Department of Education and has received financial assistance from that Department and from UNICEF. The evaluation has been undertaken in two major parts.

  • Niue Word List

    In 1973 the New Zealand Council for Educational Research was asked by the Government of Niue to plan and carry out a research project designed to provide Niuean teachers with a list of basic words which could be used in schools in the teaching of Spelling. The current lists in use had been developed in metropolitan countries, and were felt unsuited to the spelling needs of Niuean children.

  • Language Variation and Language Curriculum Materials

    Some of the findings of the work relevant to the morphology and syntax of the speech of Jamaican children are evidenced in Craig (1975) and Roberts (1975). In the latter articles it is shown that some of the basic characteristics of creole speech, such as those described in Beryl Bailey's Jamaican Creole Syntax (Cambridge U.P. 1966) form a background for very complex variation in the speech of school children. In many cases, specific characteristics of creole do not necessarily emerge in the children's language as basilect creole forms, but emerge instead as tendencies that create new language-forms within the continuum that can be observed between creole on the one hand and English on the other.

  • The Role and Status of the Yoruba Language in the Formal School System of Western Nigeria: 1846-1971

    The study was designed to investigate the role and status of the Yoruba Language in the formal school system of Western Nigeria during the period 1846 to 1971. The underlying rationale is that mother tongue education teaching in the bilingual situation of African countries has all too often been neglected or not subjected to the vigorous investigation it deserves. This is because the mother tongues (unobjectively referred to as vernaculars) is sometimes neglected in the educational programme especially when another language (in this case, English the language of the colonial masters) competes with it.

  • Differences in the Performance of L1 And L2 Speakers in Using Stress Rhythm and Intonation Cues of English to Disambiguate Sentences

    In these last ten years a great deal of work has been done on establishing the nature of the relationship between sense and sound; work that has centred upon the relationship between stress, rhythm, and intonation (S.R.I.) and underlying structures. Most of this work has been related to competence studies i.e. the intuitions of a native speaker about his language, rather than performance i.e. reaction to overt data. One of the problems faced by those working in this field has been that the researcher's internalized knowledge, is his reader's overt data and the reader's performance-based response often fails to confirm the original insight, without of course necessarily invalidating it.

  • The Effect of Language Codes in the Home and Maternal Teaching Styles on the Language Development of the Preschool Child

    A review of the literature shows that much doubts still exist on how children acquire language particularly in the traditional African societies.

  • Bilingual Education and Teacher Training in Papua New Guinea

    Government and Ministry policy in Papua New Guinea in the past few years has placed much greater emphasis on the community orientation of education at all levels, but particularly at the level of primary education. One proposed policy change which will help to bring about this orientation concerns language policy, and establishes as a long term goal a situation in which the language of education in the early years of school should be the functional language of the community which the school serves. If this policy is adopted by the government, the Ministry of Education will face many problems in implementing it.

  • An Evaluation of the Curricula of Teacher Education Programmes of Bangladesh

    The present study was an attempt to examine the relevance of the curricular offering of the teacher education programmes of Bangladesh, in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the programmes, the practices and the ideas and contents so that a rational basis for improvement of the curricula could be discovered.

  • Self-Instructional Modules in the Practice of Pedagogical Principles

    During the 1974/75 session, the Pedagogical Studies Division which offers a basic compulsory course for all students entitled Practice of Pedagogical Principles initiated a project in which students were required to develop and evaluate self-instructional packages in their respective subject areas. This project involved 5 lecturers and approximately 600 students, in five subject (methods) areas: language, social studies, mathematics, physics-chemistry, biology.

  • Self-Evaluation by High School Pupils

    In the traditional setting, evaluation of the attainment of school pupils has been done exclusively by the teachers and public examining bodies. Hardly any opportunity has been given to pupils to evaluate themselves in a regular and deliberate manner. The purpose of this study was to find out whether or not high school pupils can and do assess themselves, the nature of the assessment, its relationship with that done by their class teachers, and the effect of experience on the assessment.

  • Attitude Scale Development in Papua New Guinea

    A great deal of the emphasis in education in Papua New Guinea is given to the question of attitude change. In spite of this there has been virtually no large-scale attempt to measure attitudes directly, mainly because of problems related to huge variations in culture and language. (There are over seven hundred significant language groupings in Papua New Guinea, and there is no one lingua franca).

  • Nature and Structure of Moral Education in Western State Secondary Schools

    The aim of this project was to find out what is being done with respect to the moral development of students in Western Nigerian Secondary Grammar Schools. There are 226 of these schools as of December 1971.

  • Cross-Cultural Studies of Moral Judgements Among Pupils and Students

    Two cross-cultural studies of moral judgements are reported. The first was carried out among more than six hundred secondary school pupils in Guyana, Anguilla, Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon and England. The second was carried out among more than four hundred College of Education students in Nigeria, Mauritius, Jamaica, Grenada and England.

  • Cognitive Studies with Students in Papua New Guinea

    Students in Papua New Guinea experience considerable difficulty in dealing with much of the work to which they are subjected. This is true for all disciplines, but is probably most clearly marked in the areas of science and mathematics. While a simple recognition of this state of affairs is an important first step toward any ultimate solution, it is not enough.

  • Geography Achievement Level and the Cognitive Styles of Nigerian Pupils

    One hundred and sixty high and low geography achievers, selected by stratified random sampling from Forms 2, 4 and Lower 6 (Grades 8, 10 and 12) of a male and a female high school in Nigeria participated in this study. All the subjects were given a cognitive preference test. The results showed a significant relationship between geography achievement level and cognitive styles for boys but not for girls.

  • A Study on the Salary Structure of and Incentives for the Agricultural Graduates of Bangladesh

    Agriculture in Bangladesh still remains at the subsistence level with illiterate farmers engaged in agriculture who are not familiar with the modern techniques of farming. It is, therefore, essential that agricultural graduates are attracted to this sector so that maximum utilization of land and human resources can be made to bring about optimum production in agriculture.

  • Agricultural Extension Work among Rural Women in Selected Developing Countries

    The main aim was to study the agricultural extension work at present being done among rural women in certain developing countries, with a view to assessing the likely demand for staff training courses in Britain.

  • The Nature, Direction, and Extent of the Drop-out Problem in the Nigerian French Language Class

    The first serious attempt to teach French in Nigeria was made soon after independence in the early sixties. French teaching had to start from the universities and advanced teacher training colleges in those days (as a pilot project) in order to produce a large corps of qualified teachers for secondary institutions. This was intended to help solve West Africa's peculiar “language problem” which Markward (1967) had lamented.

  • The Population Education Research Project

    The introduction of population education in the school system of the country is a major component of the population planning programmes of the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. While the Government agencies were busy in policy-making, the Institute of Education and Research of the Dacca University took the lead in this regard and launched a two-year Pilot Research Project on Population Education.

  • Problems of Educational Growth in Underdeveloped Countries a Study of the Quantity-Quality Dilemma in the Afro-Asian Region

    Initial, interest in the subject stemmed from working with Dr. Richard Seddon, formerly with the South Pacific Commission and latterly Professor and Head of the School of Education, Macquarie University, Sydney, and from a study of the work of Dr. C.E. Beeby on the quality of education in developing countries. (1) Several of Beeby's conclusions and the evidence contained in Unesco reports of education in various Afro-Asian countries appeared to cast grave doubts on the merits of the Karachi and Addis Ababa Plans as suitable guides for the future development of education in those regions. This was particularly so with respect to the strong emphasis placed on the rapid expansion of education, especially at the primary level.

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