A Handbook on In-service Teacher Training in Developing Countries of the Commonwealth

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S. Vivian
01 Jan 1977
9781848592513 (PDF)
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Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Table of Contents

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  • Introduction

    With the coming to independence of many formerly dependent countries in the past two decades or so there have been striking developments in the field of education. The widely held conviction that in education lies the key to future progress and a better way of life for all, has led governments to give educational development top priority in their planning and consequently to devote to it a major share of scarce resources, financial and human.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Planning and Organising In-service Teacher Training

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    • Matters for Consideration in Planning In-Service Teacher Training

      In recent years many developing countries educational have taken a fresh and more critical look at objectives the role of education within the context of overall national development. New concepts of education have evolved, both formal and non-formal, and these have often been formulated in forthright terms, setting the goals for all - teachers, parents and others - concerned in education.

    • Needs and Priorities in In-Service Training

      A realistic assessment of the educational situation having been made, the most urgent development needs, both quantitative and qualitative, become clear. It may, for example, be that the education provided for children in the lower primary grades is of a very formal and authoritarian type allowing little scope for young children's creative and imaginative activities. The remedies may well be varied, such as smaller classes, more and better reading texts, materials for creative play, number apparatus and so on - but all depending for their effective use on the re-training of the teachers concerned or, in the case of unqualified staff, on their initial training.

    • Resources for In-Service Training

      As the tempo of in-service teacher training in many countries has speeded up in recent years, it has often led to situations lacking any overall pattern or planned development. Local, regional, national and international bodies of many kinds have become interested and anxious to make their contribution. Thus overlapping and duplication of effort have been common and the need for some order and control has become urgent.

    • Teachers' Support Services

      The courses and short term attachments that are able to meet the specific objectives of inservice teacher training are not well suited to the continuous process of renewal that is implicit in lifelong education.

    • Participants for In-Service Training

      In the conditions of educational change and development obtaining in almost all developing countries today the need for in-service training appears limitless and ranges across all levels and types of staff.

    • Modes of Training

      In recent years a large variety of types of in-service courses have been devised in many countries to meet a wide range of needs and conditions as economically as possible. It is therefore difficult to suggest any simple classification of in-service courses. How does one define a “short” course? And may not an inservice “project” or “programme” be made up of a variety of different elements - “short” and “long” courses; weekend conferences; radio study groups; correspondence assignments and so on?

    • Methods of Work

      It is a commonplace that young teachers, when in doubt, tend to revert to the methods which they themselves experienced as pupils and students. For this reason, careful thought needs to be given to the methods of teaching and learning to be employed on in-service courses. No course concerned to encourage a more active, enquiry-based, approach to learning is likely to be effective if it is conducted very largely through a series of formal lectures.

    • Follow-Up

      “The provision for in-service training may be excellent and the arrangements beyond reproach, but it can still be ineffective if the opportunities for teachers to apply the training in their school work are very limited or nonexistent. Staff may soon forget the new methods or the alternative approaches if difficult circumstances, lack of equipment, or lack of encouragement prevent them from putting the training into practice.”

    • Evaluation

      It has already been suggested that one of the main purposes of following-up an in-service programme is to provide reliable feed-back on the adequacy of the programme itself, thus providing guidelines for future course planning. It would seem that, in practice, evaluation is frequently no more than an incidental byproduct of an informal process of follow-up, often carried out by staff who have not necessarily had first-hand experience of the in-service programme itself.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Case Studies

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    • The Lesotho Primary Teachers' In-Service Programme 1966-1974

      The Lesotho programme, whilst retaining the same overall purpose and organization since 1966, has varied its emphasis from time to time in the light of growing experience.

    • The Montserrat Teacher Vacation Course in Mathematics, 1973

      The 1973 Montserrat Teacher Vacation Course in Mathematics was organized on a model developed using the planning and execution of three similar courses for teachers in Grenada and Carriacou.

    • The Caribbean Mathematics Project 1971-1975

      The Caribbean Mathematics Project (CMP) was, as its name indicates, a curriculum development project, but one in which teacher development went hand in hand with the development of teaching and learning materials.

    • The Kenya Headmasters' In-Service Programme 1968-1972

      In the early 1960s Kenya initiated a major effort to modernize its primary education - the so-called “New Primary Approach” (NPA). As this movement became more widespread, with large numbers of schools involved, the need for an in-service teacher training programme became a matter or urgency. In 1966, therefore, two major in-service courses were launched, one for primary headmasters, of whom there were about 5,000 in Kenya, and the other for unqualified teachers - about 8,000 in all.

    • The Uganda/Unicef Teacher Up-Grading Programme 1967-1970

      There was a considerable development of inservice teacher training work in Uganda following independence in 1962, notably in relation to a new primary school English curriculum. Such work was boosted by the setting up in 1964 of the first full-time In-service College and in 1965 by the advent of the National Institute of Education.

    • The Swaziland In-Service Teacher Training Project 1973-1978

      A UNESCO-aided up-grading programme for over 500 untrained teachers in Botswana was conducted in the period 1968-1972. This project, consisting of a series of residential courses together with correspondence study and the use of radio (on similar lines to the Uganda programme) attracted a good deal of attention in neighbouring countries. In 1971 a group of senior education officials from Swaziland visited the Botswana project, located at the Francistown College, made a study of the work being done, and, as a result, a similar project came into existence in Swaziland in 1972, on the campus of a teachers' college.

    • India the Bombay Science Improvement Project 1970-1974

      India is committed to a programme of scientific advancement as a major means to national development and thus to raising the standards of living of its people. Consequently the improvement of science education at all levels is a matter of high priority.

    • Nigeria a Primary Education Improvement Project Begun 1969

      In recent years Nigeria has been much concerned to improve the quality of the education offered in its schools, and more especially in its primary schools where, as an observer has put it: “what is now taught…is often poor by any educational standards; at its best formal and unimaginative; at its worst inefficient, irrelevant and dull.”

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Conclusions

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    • Some Conclusions

      With needs and resources varying so much from country to country it might seem presumptuous to attempt to formulate any general conclusions on the organization and execution of in-service teacher training in the developing nations. Yet certain problems recur over and over; the basic issues would seem to be common to all in-service programmes and so it may well be that a brief summing up of the main lessons to be learnt thus far might serve a useful purpose.

    • Bibliography and Project Materials and Information
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