Village Level Aquaculture Development in Africa

Village Level Aquaculture Development in Africa

Proceedings of the Commonwealth Consultative Workshop on Village Level Aquaculture Development in Africa, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 14–20 February 1985 You do not have access to this content

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Author(s):
Commonwealth Secretariat
01 Jan 1988
Pages:
170
ISBN:
9781848594432 (PDF)
http://dx.doi.org/10.14217/9781848594432-en
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Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Table of Contents

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  • Foreword

    Commonwealth Ministers of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development have consistently called for greater attention towards the development of aquaculture as a means of augmenting marine fisheries production and as a source of protein, especially in areas of poor accessibility.

  • Introduction

    The practice of aquaculture in Africa has ancient origins yet, the introduction of more conventional fish farming systems is encumbered by an array of difficulties. It is recognised that these difficulties can be overcome given a redirection of approaches.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Aquaculture Practices in Africa

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    • Systems in Use and Species Cultivated

      The status of aquaculture development in Africa has been the subject of considerable debate in recent years for despite a nutritional need to increase fish production, fish farming has far from achieved predicted goals. Perhaps the first quantified report of fish farming activities in Africa is that by Meschkat (1967) presented during the 1966 'FAO World Symposium on Warmwater Pond Fish Culture'. This was followed in 1975 by the first Regional Workshop on aquaculture planning in Africa (FAO 1975) and Symposium on Aquaculture in in Africa (FAO 1976) both held in Ghana.

    • Fish Introductions

      Though as early as 2500 BC Egyptians were known to keep tilapia in confined areas, organised aquaculture efforts on the Continent started only in recent times, particularly after the second world war (Meschkat 1967). However, fisheries from natural waters like lakes have been exploited from very early days (van der Lingen, 1967). Fish culture did not progress much because people were accustomed to cropping, gathering, herding and hunting.

    • Technical and Socioeconomic Factors Inhibiting Development

      Aquaculture development in Africa is believed to have started in Egypt 2500 years BC as depicted by bas reliefs of tilapia reared in ponds. This is even before carp culture was initiated in China, but despite this early start, fish farm production in Africa currently yields less than 0.1% of the world total of farmed fish. The reintroduction of aquaculture in Africa essentially took place after World War II.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Improving Aquaculture Systems

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    • Developing Productive Systems Under Village Conditions

      Currently, aquaculture in Africa is generally practised at three levels: (i) small-scale rural fish farming or village fish farming (also known as small-holder fish farming, or fish farming in home-ponds, or family fish farming); (ii) medium-size or artisanal fish farming involving fish-farmers/ entrepreneurs; (iii) large-scale commercial or industrial aquaculture.

    • The Economics of Oyster Culture in Sierra Leone

      One of the major objectives outlined by the Sierra Leone Government is that of reducing food deficiency and the attainment of self sufficiency in domestic food production. Meat and fish have provided the traditional sources of protein for most household diets. With the rapid inflationary rate that the economy is experiencing it is evident that fish and meat are fastly being priced out of the reach of most low-income earners.

    • Aquaculture in Nigeria

      The concept of fish farming is recent in Nigeria. With the establishment of Government pilot schemes, and an extension service in many states of the country, the practice is receiving more attention. At present, about 12.5 million ha of water surface area are being utilised for different types of culture in Nigeria.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Aquaculture in Development Planning

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    • Aquaculture Development and Planning

      Although aquaculture practices have prevailed at various levels of technology in different countries, and the technical aspects have received much attention, planning at the national level has received very little attention. The potential aquaculture offers for contributing to rural and national economies is being increasingly realized, but a well-planned national strategy and coordinated action is necessary if aquaculture is to develop at a reasonable pace.

    • The Logistics of Fish Farm Project Appraisal

      At the most recent CIFA meeting in Egypt, in an appraisal of the status of aquaculture in Africa, Coche (1982) sums up the situation by stating: 'Most of the failures of aquaculture development programmes in Africa so far can be explained by the lack of qualified technicians and of an adequate infrastructure, as well as by the absence of a government policy specifically aimed at this form of development.' The lack of a well organised aquaculture extension service - that indispensible link between producer, researcher and administrator - was therefore considered a consequence of the general scarcity of specialised trained personnel and was contributing to low development especially of small-scale rural projects.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Research in Aquaculture

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    • Aquaculture Research in Africa

      Aquaculture Research conducted in Africa and elsewhere has resulted in the identification of a small number of species as potentially important and efforts are directed towards development of suitable technologies for their culture. Research has been directed towards culture of tilapia by controlling overpopulation through cage culture, sex-direction and mono-sex culture, genetic selection and selective breeding and on integrating with agriculture and live-stock systems. Simple techniques of breeding and seed production are available for difficult-to-spawn species but are yet to reach target users, namely village level fish farmers in many countries.

    • Development of Indigenous Species

      When we endeavour to bring a species into culture we are taking the first steps on the road to domestication. Domestication can be defined as the condition wherein the breeding care and feeding of an animal are more or less controlled by man. When we look at aquatic organisms it can be seen that very few of the enormous number cultured world wide would fall into this class.

    • Fish Feed Technology

      The role of 'Fish Feed Technologist' in aquaculture development should be defined at the outset. The fish feed technologist is concerned with the study of the food and feeding of farmed fish. This includes the food and feeding of fish under extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture conditions.

    • Tilapia Hatchery Systems

      It is ironic that possibly the major constraint hindering the rapid development of tilapia culture is the shortage of high quality seed for restocking. Yet one of the major problems encountered in pond culture is the excessive reproduction encountered in production or fattening ponds. In recent years the major advances in tilapia production have occurred where the fry and fingerling production have been separated from the on growing and fattening stages.

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